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CHEM 1A Chapter Notes -Lattice Energy, Lewis Structure, Vsepr Theory

Course Code
Nien-hui Ge

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Week 1
atomic radius - 100 pm (pico meter) or 1 x 10^-10 m
nuclear radius - 5 x 10^-3 pm or 5 x 10^-15 m
periodic table
oatomic number - number of protons
omass number - number of protons + neutrons
oelement symbol
omacroscopic - visual observation (ex. looking at rust)
omicroscopic - looking at the chemical makeup (ex. molecules that makeup
omolecule: aggregate of 2 or more atoms held by chemical forces
odiatomic molecule - contains 2 atoms
opolyatomic ion - covalently bonded elements w/a charge: OH-
oion - atom or group of atoms with a + or - charge
ocation - +, loses electron
oanion - -, gains elctrons
oisotopes - same atom with different neutrons. same chemical properties,
different physical properties
chemical formulas
omolecular formula - actual # of atoms
oempirical formula - ratio # of atoms
Ionic Compound
oconsists of combination of cations and anions
ono molecular formula, only empirical because they cant exist alone (ex.
osum of cation and anion charges in each formula need to = 0
oamu - atomic mass unit
1.066054 x 10^-27
oCarbon is the 'standard
weighs 12 amu exactly
oMass Spectrometer
measures an atom's amu
light atoms bend more, heavy atoms bend less
othe mole
1 mole of anything = 6.022*10^23 units of that thing
6.022*10^23 molecules /1 mole
molar mass = how many grams are in 1 mole (g/mol)
water has 18g/mol
moles = ions/A#

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naming compounds
name of cation (+, usually metal) then the root of the anion (-,
usually nonmental) +ide
NaCl - sodium chloride
oCovalent (molecular)
prefix (if nonmetal) + full name of more metallic (left side)
prefix (if nonmetal) + root of less metallic + ide (right side)
has an H
HCl - hydrochloric acid
if there is an O at the end drop the hydro and dont say a thing about
the O (sometimes)
HNO - nitric acid
Element that comes first in a molecular formula - most electropositve
obottom left to top right
Greek Prefixes Number
mono- 1
di- 2
tri- 3
tetra- 4
penta- 5
hexa- 6
hepta- 7
octa- 8
nona- 9
deca- 10
tera 10^12
giga 10^9
mega 10^6
kilo 10^3
hecto 100
deca 10
deci .1
centi .01
mili 10^-3
micro 10^-6

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nano 10^-9
pico 10^-12
Text Symbol Factor
tera T 1000000000000
giga G 1000000000
mega M 1000000
kilo k 1000
hecto h 100
(none) (none) 1
deci d 0.1
centi c 0.01
milli m 0.001
micro μ 0.000001
nano n 0.000000001
1 m^3 = 1000 liters
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