NURS 3120 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Allergic Rhinitis, Conjunctivitis, Migraine

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7 Feb 2017
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Head, Eyes, Ears Nose and Throat
Concept Overview
Sensory perception
o Ability to understand and interact with the environment through senses and conditions
that negatively affect these perceptions
o Occurs through a variety of body systems and a complex interaction between sensory
structures and neurologic function
The Head
Skull is a bony structure that protects the brain and upper spinal cord
6 bones in skull
o One frontal bone
o Two frontal bones
o Two temporal bones
o One occipital bone
14 bones in face
The Eyes
External ocular structures
o Eyebrows
o Upper and lower eyelids
o Eyelashes
o Conjunctivae
o Lacrimal glands
o Opening between eyelids, palpebral fissure
Ocular structures
o Eyeball
Sclera
Tough, fibrous outer layer
White of the eye
Uvea
Choroid, ciliary body, iris
Choroid: highly vascular and supplies retina with blood
Retina
Transparent layer with photoreceptor cells
o Rods and cones
Ocular function
o Vision occurs when rods and cones in retina perceive images and colors in response to
light stimuli
o Lens is constantly adjusting to stimuli at different distances through accommodation
o 6 extra ocular muscles and 3 cranial nerves
Eye movement in 6 directions
The Ear
External ear
o Auricle (pinna)
Cartilage and skin
o External auditory ear canal
Middle ear
o Air filled cavity separated from outer ear canal by the tympanic membrane
Inner ear
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o Vestibule
Balance
o Semicircular canals
Balance
o Cochlea
Hearing
The Nose
Passageway for inspired and expired air
Humidifies, filters, and warms air before it enters the lungs and conserves heat and moisture
during exhalation
Identify odors and give resonance to laryngeal sounds
The Mouth and Oropharynx
Teeth
o Deciduous teeth (baby teeth)
o Permanent teeth
32
o Incisors
12
o Premolars
8
o Molars
12
Salivary glands
o Parotid
o Submandibular
o Sublingual
Oropharynx
o Back of the mouth
o Visible on examination
Uvula
Anterior and posterior pillars
Tonsils
Posterior pharyngeal wall
Neck
Larynx
o Voice box
o Below pharynx and trachea
Thyroid gland
o Largest endocrine gland in the body
Produces two hormones
T3
T4
Regulate metabolism
Cardiovascular structures
o Carotid arteries and internal jugular veins lie deep in sternocleidomastoid muscle
Lymph Nodes
Superficial nodes
Deep nodes
Can become enlarged and tender, providing early signs of inflammation
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