BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Double Fertilization, Pollen Tube, Plant Reproduction

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BIOL Lecture 11
Plant reproduction
Reproduction in different plants
Process includes parts of cell & molecular biology, growth/development, ecology
Reproductive organs in angiosperms are aggregated into flowers
o Angiosperms have double fertilisation
Pollination is achieved by a diverse array of mechanisms
Breeding systems determine the pattern of mating within a population
Fruits are variously adapted for seed protection and dispersal
Vegetative (non-sexual) reproduction can be important, but no genetic variation
Important knowledge for biodiversity conservation and plant breeding
Reproduction flowers
Stamens (male) consist of anther (contains pollen) & filaments
Carpels (female) consist of ovary, ovules, style and stigma
Pollen lands on stigma surface (receptor) ; pollen tube grows to ovule
Angiosperms seed i a essel – refers to the carpel
Sepals - protection
life cycle of angiosperms
Angiosperm gametophytes are extremely reduced
o Female gametophyte is inside ovule (8 cells)
o Male gametophyte develops from pollen grain (3 cells)
Double fertilisation:
o 2 sperm nuclei from germinated pollen grain fertilise ovule
o one fuses with egg cell to form zygote and new embryo
o other fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form endosperm (food reserve for embryo)
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