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Lecture 8

BMS1021:Cells, tissues and organisms: Lecture 8, 9 & 10

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Monash University
Biomedical Sciences
John Bertram

Lecture 8: Catabolic pathway: Breakdown Anabolic Pathway: Construction Laws of Thermodynamics: - First Law (conservation of energy): Energy can be transferred or transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed - Second Law: Entropy of the universe always increases and spontaneous processes increase entropy Entropy: Loss of usable energy Free energy (G) & free energy change (ΔG): Gibbs free energy G: Energy available for work in a system of uniform temperature Glycolysis: Aerobic respiration: Lecture 9: Activation energy: the amount of energy required to start a reaction • Forms a barrier • Catalysts-(enzymes) speed up reactions Enzyme function: Rate of reaction of an enzyme is affected by: - Substrate concentration: [low]: increasing substrate speeds reaction, [high]: enzyme saturated - Local conditions (temperature and pH) - Co-factors - Inhibitors - Enzyme affinity - Allosteric enzymes can be activated and deactivated as required Lecture 10: Homeostasis: Steady state  Thermal regulation occurs through negative feedback  Optimal temperature range for animals; thermo-neutral zone, most energetically efficient. Ec
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