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BMS1062 (1)

BMS1062: Molecular Biology: Gene regulation

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Monash University
Biomedical Sciences
Peter Boag

GENE REGULATION  PROMOTERS ARE SPECIFIC SEQUENCES OF DNA  RNA binds to the promoter (1 step in transcription)  Promoter sequences determine where RNA polymerase starts transcription (e.g. TATA box in eukaryotes)  Negative regulation (repressor) A regulatory protein is used to stop transcription of a gene (turns promoter OFF)  Positive regulation (activator) A regulatory protein is required before the gene is efficiently transcribed (turn promoter ON)  Promoter is “off” when RNA polymerase can’t bind and begin transcription  The place where the repressor binds is called the operator site    Lac Operon:  Controls the metabolism of lactose to obtain energy  Only want to express the gene when lactose is present  Negative regulation – by lactose repressor (Lacl)  Positive regulation – by CAP protein –inducer is cAMP (which responds to glucose) o if glucose is present it is metabolised preferentially to other sugars including lactose o Lac operon will not be expressed when glucose is present o Mediated by levels of cAMP and the positive regulator CAP (catabolite activator protein) - Called “catabolite repression”   CAP activates transcription after binding cAMP o CAP is an allosteric protein o Induces D
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