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Lecture

BMS2021 hormones.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PHY3181
Professor
Reena Taylor
Semester
Fall

Description
BMS2021 Cellcell communication hormones and signal transduction BasicsHow do these particular receptors work in mediating receptor signals Pathways that they work through Consequences Biological clinical example Lecture 7 Hormone action and cell signalling Cell and tissues talk to each other via messengers or hormonesCells and tissues communicate with each other by releasing or responding to secreted substances that aim in altering the specific function of a cell or tissue These messengers are termed hormones This communication is required for the development and organisation of tissues the control of growth division and death and coordinating the diverse cellular activities This message system is termed the endocrine system Hormones can be divided into 3 main classes peptideprotein hormones such as insulin amine hormones such as epinephrine and steroid hormones such as oestrogen or testosterone The method in the way cells communicate occur in 3 ways they can secrete chemicals that act on targets some distance away the can display signalling molecules that are bound to the cell surface and influence other cells that make direct contact or they can form gap junctions that directly join the cytoplasm of interacting cells In higher vertebrates such as humans evolution has developed a complicated set of hormonal controls that regulate cellular processes Hormones can act to increase or decrease permeability of cell thereby modulating the transport rate of molecules they can influence the specific function of a cell by inducinginhibiting synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins and they can modulate the metabolism of energy stores such as carbohydrates fats and proteins Hormones have a district set of properties that modulate their synthesis and action They are produced in small amounts by the endocrine gland in question and that secretion rate is determined by the need for that hormone They do not affect the organ that secretes the hormone itself Depending on the hormone released action may be general thought various cells in the organism or specific to target cells or tissues The effect on tissues is dependent on the ability of the tissue to respond and the amount of hormone present Steroid hormones are either adrenocortical steroids such as glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids or gonadal sterodisa such as androgens or oestrogens These are all derivatives of sterane which had a completely hydrogenated phenanthere structure attached to a cyclopentane Peptideprotein hormones such as insuil can be stored in secretory vesicles for up to one day Many are stored as prohormones They are released via exocytosis of secretory granules This method of release is modulated by other hormones metabolites and the CNS They can circulate in the blood freely and have a lifetime of minutesAmine hormones derived from tyrosine are secreted by the Adrenal Medulla which makes Epinephrine and Norepinephrine or the thyroid gland which produces thyroxine and triiodothyronine
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