Change in an organism’s behaviour/ thought as a result of experience.
Process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
Simplest and earliest form of learning
Repeated exposure to stimuli
Responding to something better after being exposed to it before
Classical conditioning (PAVLOVIAN)
Form of learning which animals respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired
with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
UCS- stimulus that elicits an automatic response
UCR- automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned
Animal does not need to learn to salivate
Response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that elicited by a neurtal stimulus
Initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an
EG: BELL (sound)
Bell= salivation Pavlov noted that classical conditioning occurs in 3 phases, acquisition, extinction and spontaneous
Learning phase during which a conditioned response is established.
Closer CS and UCS the faster learning occurs
Gradual reduction & eventual elimination of the CR after the CS is presented REPEATEDLY
Organism learns the CS (sound) no longer signals the UCS (food)
Sudden re-emergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the
Reappears in weaker form
Sudden return of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to
the environment which the conditioned response was acquired.
EG: phobias- overcoming phobia then symptoms reappear when put in phobic environment.
Process where conditioned stimuli is similar but not identical
EG: salivation to both bell and whistle
Process that occurs when we produce a less obvious CR to CS.
Allows us to distinguish among stimuli that share some similarities
Without it we would be scared to pet a new dog if we were bitten by same type of dog.
Developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with
another conditioned stimulus
EG: feeling thirst after someone says coke
Experiencing CS alone many times, its difficult to classically condition it to another stimulus Operant conditioning / Instrumental conditioning
Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behaviour.
Organism’s behaviour being shaped by what comes after it, usually REWARD
Organism “gets something” EG: Food, sex, attention/ avoiding something unpleasant
Law of effect
Principle that if a stimulus followed by behaviour in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to
give rise to the behaviour in the future.
By psychologist Thorndike (Puzzle Box)
S-R psychology- all learning occurs by trial and error= reward
If we are rewarded for a response to a stimulus we are more likely to repeat it in the
Grasping basic nature of the problem
“Aha reaction” once animal solves problem it will get it correct every time after that.
Skinner Box/ Operant conditioning chamber
Small animal chamber constructed to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be
administered and behaviours to be recorded unsupervised.
Skinner focuses on Reinforcement, punishment and discriminative stimulus.
Outcome that STRENGTHENS the probability of the behaviour.