Study about how the behaviour changes over the life span.
Post hoc fallacy
False assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have
caused that event.
EG: concluding that because 100% of serial killers drank milk, milk creates killers
Cross sectional design
Design in which researchers examine people of different ages at a single point in time.
Effect that sets of people who lived in one set of time can differ to another group of
Design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over
Participants dropping out of a study
Gene environment interaction
The impact of genes on behaviour depends on the environment in which the behaviour
Nature Vs Nurture
Genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments, leading to
the mistaken appearance of a pure effect of nature.
Genetic influence= nature environmental influence= nurture
Study of how children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate and
Equilibration Maintaining a balance between our experience of the world and our thoughts about it.
Piagetians process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures.
Piagetians process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience.
Forcing children to enter a new way of looking at the world
Stage characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent
0-2 years, sense of touch
Infants using sense and motor abilities to understand the world.
The understanding that obj continue to exist even when out of view ( children lack)
EG: “peek n boo”
Stage characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experiences, but
not yet perform operation on them.
2-7years, symbolic thinking, including language to understand world.
Inability to see the world from others perspectives and just understand and interpret the
world in terms of self.
Task asking children to understand that despite a transformational change, it’s still the
Concrete operations stage
Stage characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only
7-11 years, logical principles
Needing physical experiences to which they can join their mental operations Formal operations stage
Stage characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond there and now
11+, most sophisticated type of thinking
Interested in how social and cultural factors influence learning.
Allows children to perform at level above what they would be
Believed that parents and caretakers tend to structure the learning environment for
children in ways that guide them to behave as if they have learnt it before they have.
Parents provide a structure to aid their children, overtime they gradually remove structure
as children become more competent.
Zone of proximal development
Phase of learning during which children can benefit from instructions.
What children can do independently & what child can do with assistance
Mental entities that provide the basis for thought (mental blue prints for actions)
Schema’s change as we mature
Theory of mind
Ability to reason about what other people know/ believe.
Understanding how thinking works
False belief task
Testing children’s ability to understand that someone else believes something they know to
Conceptual change theory
Emphasis on experience in cognitive development
Concept of self and others
At 3 months they can distinguish self from others
1 year recognise self in mirror 2 years, recognise pictures of self
Imitate people’s behaviour well within 1styear
The strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest
Relationship between mother and child if disturbed child will form attachment to an adult
and more likely to survive and grow ( Bowlby-attachment theory)
Critical Vs Sensitive periods
6-8 weeks, attach to anyone
Attachment in the making
6-8 months, Discriminate between people and knows mother
6-8 months to 18 months, infant can crawl and has confident with exploring the world.
18 months on, caring relationship changes and mother is more consoled
Father infant relationships
Follow after attachment with mothers
Sent more time playing than taking care of th