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Developmental psychology.docx

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Developmental psychology Developmental psychology  Study about how the behaviour changes over the life span. Post hoc fallacy  False assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event.  EG: concluding that because 100% of serial killers drank milk, milk creates killers Cross sectional design  Design in which researchers examine people of different ages at a single point in time. Cohort effect  Effect that sets of people who lived in one set of time can differ to another group of people. Longitudinal design  Design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time. Attrition  Participants dropping out of a study Gene environment interaction  The impact of genes on behaviour depends on the environment in which the behaviour develops. Nature Vs Nurture  Genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments, leading to the mistaken appearance of a pure effect of nature.  Genetic influence= nature environmental influence= nurture Cognitive development  Study of how children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate and remember. Equilibration  Maintaining a balance between our experience of the world and our thoughts about it. Assimilation  Piagetians process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures. Accommodation  Piagetians process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience.  Forcing children to enter a new way of looking at the world Sensorimotor stage  Stage characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experience mentally  0-2 years, sense of touch  Infants using sense and motor abilities to understand the world. Objective permanence  The understanding that obj continue to exist even when out of view ( children lack)  EG: “peek n boo” Preoperational stage  Stage characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experiences, but not yet perform operation on them.  2-7years, symbolic thinking, including language to understand world. Egocentrism  Inability to see the world from others perspectives and just understand and interpret the world in terms of self. Conservation  Task asking children to understand that despite a transformational change, it’s still the same. Concrete operations stage  Stage characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only  7-11 years, logical principles  Needing physical experiences to which they can join their mental operations Formal operations stage  Stage characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond there and now  11+, most sophisticated type of thinking Vygotsky  Interested in how social and cultural factors influence learning.  Allows children to perform at level above what they would be  Believed that parents and caretakers tend to structure the learning environment for children in ways that guide them to behave as if they have learnt it before they have. Scaffolding  Parents provide a structure to aid their children, overtime they gradually remove structure as children become more competent. Zone of proximal development  Phase of learning during which children can benefit from instructions.  What children can do independently & what child can do with assistance Schemas  Mental entities that provide the basis for thought (mental blue prints for actions)  Schema’s change as we mature Theory of mind  Ability to reason about what other people know/ believe.  Understanding how thinking works False belief task  Testing children’s ability to understand that someone else believes something they know to be wrong. Conceptual change theory  No development  Emphasis on experience in cognitive development Concept of self and others  At 3 months they can distinguish self from others  1 year recognise self in mirror  2 years, recognise pictures of self  Imitate people’s behaviour well within 1styear Attachment  The strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest  Relationship between mother and child if disturbed child will form attachment to an adult and more likely to survive and grow ( Bowlby-attachment theory) Imprinting  Critical Vs Sensitive periods Preattachment stage  6-8 weeks, attach to anyone Attachment in the making  6-8 months, Discriminate between people and knows mother True attachment  6-8 months to 18 months, infant can crawl and has confident with exploring the world. Reciprocal relationships  18 months on, caring relationship changes and mother is more consoled Father infant relationships  Follow after attachment with mothers  Sent more time playing than taking care of th
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