JSB172 Intensive Week Lecture Notes
Lecture One – Working as a Justice Professional
Good time management – some basic skills:
Know your daily commitments
Know your study strengths and
weaknesses Goal setting – always follow SMARTA!
S – Specific
Know when, where and how you like
to study M – Measurable
Recognise your learning style –VARK A – Active
Know your expectations and set goals R – Realistic
T – Time-framed
Develop active learning strategies A – Adaptable
Improve your time management
Manage your stress
Manage your study load by dividing tasks into smaller tasks and completing them one at a time.
Aim for around 50 minutes of study and 10 minutes of break every hour.
Begin your assignment as early as possible and complete it in parts to ease the work load.
When writing assignments, particularly essays, focus on one paragraph at a time.
Don’t attempt to complete all weekly readings at once – separate readings and even break up long chapters
into smaller, more manageable reading sessions.
Vary Your Study!
Vary your approaches to study every so often. This keeps your mind fresh and alert. Also try to alternate
tasks which require concentration with tasks that are more routine to allow your mind to take a break.
Consider the following:
o Finding Resources
o Having a Coffee
o Writing Notes
o Organising Files
Remember to Incubate
Our minds remember things better when we give information time to ‘sink in’.
Often when faced with a problem, leaving it alone and coming back to it later may actually help us to find
Leave your assignment draft overnight. Read it the next morning and you will notice mistakes and
corrections you would not have the night before.
If you have a reading that is difficult to follow, re-read it the following day. It will become clearer then. The
same often applies to mathematics problems.
Revision is Key!
The more we revise, the more we remember. Without review, we lose all memory within a month!
Review your lecture notes after the lecture and make changes whenever necessary. Review these lecture notes throughout the course of the semester.
If you are having trouble understanding something, try ‘Googling’ it for clarification or explanation in
different words to that given in the lecture.
Use the little extra bits of time on the bus, between classes or whilst waiting to read over a set of notes.
Recognise what causes you stress.
Develop good time management strategies.
Learn to delegate.
Balance study with social activities and work.
Get enough exercise and rest.
Remember – a little bit of stress is okay, even productive… but too much stress is unhealthy!
Examine how your time is spent.
Develop a flexible and workable plan for the semester. This can include a weekly planner, semester planner,
exam planner etc.
Share the workload with others.
Recognise and deal with procrastination.
Develop time-saving strategies.
Manage Time at Three Levels
1. Long View – this is the overall outline. A good way to do this is using a semester planner and map out all of
the important dates at the beginning of the semester.
2. Medium View – this is the general details, usually weekly. A good way to manage the medium view is to map
out a weekly planner of classes etc.
3. Close Up – this is the finer details such as daily planner, class times and scheduling time to study etc.
The Basics of Professional Communication
A university email should include: the subject code, name and student number. Remember – when emailing
anyone inside the university – or anywhere for that matter – always be polite and literate. There is nothing
worse than chat speak or rude emails.
The Basics of Teamwork
Why work in a team in the workplace? In a Justice context specifically, the work we do is very complex and
therefore working in groups is often necessary to tackle a range of issues with a wide range of skills.
Communication in a team is absolutely vital! In a group, all members must maintain open communication at
all times. Make sure you are heard, do not just sit back and allow others to speak for you.
Use critical language to ensure your message is received. Examples include ‘I need clarification’ or ‘this is a
potential serious problem’.
Teams typically have different roles within them which exist over the course of a team project.
These include procedural roles such as:
o Leader/coordinator/chairperson – duties include overseeing, managing, guiding, agenda setting.
o Recorder/secretary – note taking and recording of events such as team meetings.
o Technical support – provides technical support and access to resources.
o Diplomat – help things run smoothly by following up and reminding team members of tasks.
Also task roles, which are focused on achieving goals. Can include initiator, opinion seeker/giver,
elaborator/clarifier, evaluator/critic and energiser. Maintenance roles are important for keeping the social aspects of the group and environment a safe and
comfortable place. Roles can include the encourager, supporter, mediator, compromiser and group
Dysfunctional roles are those we wish to avoid as they can disrupt the group and its progress. These include
the aggressor, blocker, rebel, self-seeker, dominator, clown and social loafer/free rider.
Lecture Two – Research as a Justice Professional: Methods and Ethics
What is criminological research?
It is a social science – the study of crime, of criminal behaviour, causes of crime, definition of criminality, and
the societal reaction to crime.
It is an empirical social-behavioural science that investigates crime and criminals.
Specifically, criminal justice is an interdisciplinary social science which studies the nature and operations of
organisations providing justice to society.
As academic disciplines, it is considered a product of sociology.
The Steps of the Social Research Process
Research questions – these are based on observations or literature review.
Research design – this is a plan of the research process.
o Qualitative vs. Quantitative?
o Exploratory, Descriptive or Explanatory?
o The importance of the theory.
Collection of information, data and evidence.
o Collection of historical documents
o Questionnaires or surveys
Systematic coding and analysis
o Statistical analyses
o Coding of interview transcripts
Dissemination of findings
o Conference papers
o Journal article
What About You? The Impact of the Researcher
Much of the research conducted by an individual will depend on who the individual is.
Our individual view of the world is called our ontological position. This varies from person to person based
on a number of factors such as experience, values, opinions etc.
Our personal values can also affect our work. These can include deeply held beliefs, ideals and customs.
These will influence how you view your research and the paradigm that you work through to do it.
Paradigms and Theory
A paradigm is a collection of beliefs and traditions that govern how the world is viewed.
o For example, when Copernicus proposed that planets actually move around the sun, there was a shift in
Theories thus fit within these paradigms. Therefore, values + paradigms + theories = a researchers approach
to social research.
Theories provide us with expectations about the relationship between variables in the social world.
The purpose of the literature review in the research process is to answer the following questions:
o What do we already know?
o What methods have already been used to find this out?
o What have been the problems within this research?
o What don’t we know? (Gaps)
A literature review is not just a summary of information. They are a systematic critical synthesis of
information. How do researchers talk to each other about their research?
o Journal articles
o Conference papers
o Government reports (sometimes)
Why only these sources? Because these have been peer reviewed and deemed to be of high quality.
When writing a literature review, only use peer reviewed sources!
Not all but most research begins with a research question.
The question that is being asked determines the nature of the research design