PSYCHOLOGY 1B LECTURE’S 1 & 2 & WEEK 1 TUTORIAL
Learning is any enduring change in the way an organism responds, based on its experiences.
It cannot always be observed directly. It is inferred from behaviour that is observed.
Habituation is the reduction in response strength to learnt behaviours.
Classical conditioning: This is also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning.
It is the learning of a new association between corresponding stimuli.
An unconditioned stimulus naturally elicits a response to the stimuli, it doesn’t need to be learnt.
Generalisation: If a response is conditioned to one stimulus, the organism may also respond to a
Discrimination: Means no response to a dissimilar stimulus.
Extinction: Weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented
without the unconditioned stimulus.
Lecture 2- Sensation and Perception:
Sensation: Means stimulation of the senses.
Perception: Selection, organisation and interpretation of received information.
Psychophysics: Refers to the process where physical stimuli are translated in to psychological
Gustav Fechner: Formulated the theories of detectable stimulus and absolute thresholds.
Just Noticeable Difference (JND): Refers to the smallest detectable difference in processed
Weber’s Law: Weber asserted that the size of the JND should be measured in proportion to the size
of the initial stimulus.
Signal Detection Theory: Refers to sensory processes and decision making processes.
Subliminal Perception: Is the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness of it
Sensory Adaptation: Is a decline in sensitivity to perceived stimuli.
Visual Perception: The left eye communicates information to the right hemisphere in the brain,
while the right eye communicates with the left hemisphere.
Main pathway of vi