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Lecture 10

PSYC 2P30 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Authoritarianism, Scapegoating, Meta-Analysis

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Gordon Hodson

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Prejudice, Stereotyping & Discrimination
Experimental vs. control. After knowing what it was like to be a gay person they
could then put themselves in a gay persons shoes
Significant increase in being able to put yourself in your shoes of a gay person
Significant increase in feeling passion or empathy for gays
Definitions, sources of prejudice, contemporary prejudice, individual differences and
what it’s like to be a victim of prejudice
Stereotypes: beliefs about the attributes, characteristics, traits, or qualities of a group or
group members
can include beliefs about actions (ex. Police will harass you)
can be positive (ex. Loyal, athletic) or negative (lazy, violent)
Prejudice: attitude (i.e. evaluation) toward a group or group member
Like vs. dislike, favor vs. disfavor
Usually negative
Example: sexism, racism
Discrimination: beahviour (usually negative) aimed at a group or group member
Example: denying someone employment
Summary of Terms
Prejudice=(evaluation) attitude (-)
Stereotype= belief (-/+)
Discrimination= behaviour (-)
Social Sources
a) Unequal Status
Unequal status (for whatever reason) prejudice develops
System justification- when groups are unequal it tends to become entrenched like
that (men have had power over women for such a long time)
b) Religion
Leaders can use religion to justify social order (within and between cultures)
Typical findings (Re: Christianity)
Church members more prejudiced than nonmembers
Especially true among fundamentalist Christians (literally endorse biblical texts)
But other findings re: Christianity among church attenders, faithful/committed
attenders less prejudiced than occasional attenders
The crux lies in WHY are you religious?
Allport (1954): Motives for Religiosity
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1. Extrinsic: using religion as instrumental means for self-serving ends (social
status, personal security) if these are the reasons you’re going to church, tends to
foster more prejudice
2. Intrinsic: pursue religion as an end in itself, master motive in your life less
prejudiced when prejudiced is opposed by religious group (as most are)
BUT: score higher in intrinsic religiosity can be more homophobic or more
prejudiced to anti-outgroup attitude is supported by religion (homophobia),
blacks in the South)
Batson (1976) Motives for Religiosity
Agrees with Allport but adds a third point
3. Religion as a Quest seek to face religious issues (ex. Mortality, meaning in
life) in all their complexity, without answers
Hall et al. (2010) meta-analysis
Extrinsic religiosity- .17 correlation (positive)
Fundamentalism (.13 prejudice)
Intrinsic/Quest (.-07) some religions increase prejudice and some decrease
Can beliefs about people actually come true(self-fulfilling prophecy)
c) Self-fulfilling prophecy
Social beliefs can be self-conforming
1. Perceiver’s stereotypes influence his or her perceptions
2. Perceiver’s behaviour then elicits “expected” behaviour In the person or target
Rosenthal’s “Pygmalion Effect”
Tested children at a school, the manipulation was that the researchers went into
the school and tested the children and 20% of the class were likely “to show
significant inflection or spurt in their learning within the next year or less than
will be the remaining 80% of the children”
Telling teachers that “x, x, x” will perform better, these children would perform
When the teachers think that they have the smarter kids in their class—they will
invest much more in the “brighter” children
Word, Zanna & Cooper (1974) ***
White males interviewing men white/black job participants
Videotaped the interviews
RESULTS: when applicant was Black, White interviewers: sat farther away
Also ended the interviewer (black applicants) much earlier) and made a lot more
speech errors (50% more)
Rated the black applicants as nervous, ineffective and less competent than white
The way that white people treat black people, black people do not do as well
2. Emotional Sources
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