Actus reus & mens rea: ducks and yatim. Measuring crime: uniform crime report, self-report surveys, victimization surveys, observational studies. Judicial decisions: crimes considered (cid:498)pubic evil(cid:499), e. g. murder and assault, not created by provinces and territories, they create regulatory offences, (managing legitimate behaviour) Scc upheld most of child pornography laws; cannot be prosecuted for producing - materials for own use. Commits; aided or abetted encouraged, plotted intended with others counselled. Mistake of fact: unaware committing crime; ignorance of law not excuse. Intoxication: alcohol/drug intoxication prevents mens rea; possibly reduced charge. Necessity: crime committed to avoid greater evil; no reasonable alternative. Duress: threat of bodily harm to self or others; no reasonable escape. Self defence: used force to defend self; force deemed reasonable to circumstances. Heat of passion, caused by insult, trigger or action. 1981, canadian urban victimization survey: general social survey. Details of victimization, for some crimes considered more reliable that ucr. Random sampling of canadians, 15yrs+ usually by phone.