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BIOL 1003
Elizabeth Nisbet

Control of breathing - Respiratory control Breathing rate is monitored by  CO2 conc. - increases when more CO2 is produced as a waste product  O2 conc. - decreases as it is used in respiration to produce ATP  More sensitive to changes in CO2 Sensory nerves send information to the medulla via cranial nerves  Chemoreceptors, aortic and carotid bodies, are located in the aorta and carotid arteries  Primarily monitor pH and CO2 level (homeostasis control)  Aortic bodies send signals via vagus nerves about breathing reflexes, blood pressure and cardiac activity  Carotid bodies send signals about sensations of breathing and blood pressure Motor nerves send commands to muscles or organs  Phrenic nerve innervates diaphragm o Originate from cervical plexus, high in neck o Stimulate breathing by carrying messages from medulla  Intercostal nerves enter intercostal muscles and run along the rib cage Heart  Heart pumps blood through arteries that branch into smaller arterioles, capillaries, then from a network of venules to veins and back to the heart Cardiac Anatomy  The heart consists of 4 chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle  Right atrium receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava  Blood flows from right atrium, across tricuspid valve, into right ventricle  Muscle of right ventricle is not as thick as left ventricle  Blood enters pulmonary artery from right ventricle. Backflow prevented by semilunar pulmonic valve  Blood returns to heart from lungs via 4 pulmonary veins that enter left atrium  Blood flows from left atrium, across mitral valve, into left ventricle  Left ventricle has a thick muscular wall / generate high pressures during contraction  Blood from left ventricle is ejected, across aortic valve, into aor
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