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neurons.docx

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School
Carleton University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1003
Professor
Elizabeth Nisbet
Semester
Summer

Description
Neurones  Soma: nerve cell body / contains nucleus, cell organelles / synthesise of neurotransmitter  Dendrites: branching extensions from nerve cell soma o Stimulated by other neurones \ transmit impulses towards soma  Axon: single extension that extends from the soma to the target cell o Myelinated axon is surrounded by Schwann cells (myelin sheath) o Have nodes of Ranvier and are rich in myelin (lipid) Table 16-7-1 STIMULATED TRANSMITS IMPULSES NEURONE BY TO STRUCTURE Cell body in root cell Sensory Receptor Relay neurone ganglion Relay Sensory neurone Motor neurone No axon Motor/effectorRelay neurone Gland, muscle Schwann cells (effector organ) Change In Membrane Permeability Leading To The Generation Of An Action Potential  Stimulus reaches threshold  Voltage-regulated sodium channels open / influx of Na+ / down electrochemical gradient / +ve feedback  Depolarisation / inside becomes +ve / membrane potential reverses o //Depolarisation opens sodium channels in adjacent membrane  Potassium channels open (slower than Na+ gates) / diffusion of K+ ions out of neurone  Repolarisation  Sodium channels close  Hyperpolarisation due to overshoot in movement of K+out of the cell o //Membrane potential is lower than resting potential o //Interior of the cell becomes -ve \ membrane is more permeable to
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