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Synovial Joints

3 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 1004
Tamy Superle

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Outline of Lecture 01 (01-06 A; Ruff) Synovial Joints, Hip 0. Overview of joint types A. Fibrous: low/no mobility; fibrous connective tissue - sutures – in skull - syndesmosis – unites bones via sheets of fibrous tissue (eg. Interosseous membrane) B. Cartilaginous: some mobility; hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage - eg: pubic symphysis, intervertebral bodies, manubrium -> 1 ribt C. Synovial: high mobility; several components, below - eg: most limb joints! I. Introduction to Synovial Joints A. Components 1. Constant Components - bone: compact and/or trabecular - Hyaline cartilage: extent determines range of motion; covers all contact surfaces between bones - synovial membrane/cavity: between the two bones • Synovial cavity has no blood supply; nourished by synovial fluid, slow-healing - synovial fluid: hyaline cartilage + synovial fluid => very slippery surface - fibrous capsule: surrounds joint and 2. Optional Components - fibrocartilage (deepen cavity, promote sliding): located w/in synovial cav.  Labrum: complete rim around joint; deepens concavity  Disk: fibrocartilege ring across joint; strengthens joint  Meniscus: partial disk (moon-shaped - fat pad: space filler in joint - Intracapsular tendon: passes thru fibrous capsule but not thru synovial cav. - bursa(e): double-walled pockets of synovial membrane filled with fluid that facilitaes movment (independent or continuous with joint) B. Joint motions - axis of rotation: point/line which remains stationary during joint movement - Abduction: moving away from the median plane of the body. - Adduction: moving toward the median plane of the body. - Extension: straightening or increasing the angle between body parts. - Flexion: bending of a part or decreasing the angle between body parts. - Protonation: medial rotation of the arm such that the palm faces posteriorly. - Supination: lateral rotation of the arm such that the palm faces anteriorly. - Rotation: internal or external with relation to a long bone II. Review of Pelvis A. Bones - Innominate (os coxae): three bones ossify separately, fuse in early 20’s * Ilium - Anterior/Posterior superior/inferior iliac spine (all 4 combos) - Iliac crest - Greater sciatic notch (inferior part of it is ischial) - Iliac tuberosity - Ala (wing) - Iliac fossa: anterior surface of ilum (aka ala) - Gluteal surface: posterior surface of ilum * Ischium: primary support when sitting - Ischial spine - Lesser sciatic notch - Ischial tuberosity - Body - Ramus * Pubis - Pubic tub
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