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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.doc

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BIOL 1010
James Cheetham

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Chemical Context of Life- Introduction to DNA and Genetics September 21, 2010 - background in chemistry (organic) - Only have to deal with 11 or 12 elements - What is a molecule? o Changing a gene (biotechnology) is molecular science o Cohen and Boyer- move a gene from one species to another o If you find out how molecules come together to make a muscle work or something, it’s intellectually pleasing - Molecule: atoms sharing electrons - DNA is a long molecule - What’s the world made of? o As world went on, we got more complicated ideas o Essentially just atoms/elements - 96% of human: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen - Particle accelerators make the rest of elements other than 92 naturally-occurring ones - Nitrogen deficiency- corn doesn’t grow as much - Goiter (iodine deficiency)- thyroid condition- swollen throat - 1900- thought atom was ball - Then- positive neucleus and protons around - Standard model- just for fun- particle physics- looking for Higgs boson (gives particle mass) - Molecule- two or more atoms sharing electrons - Covalent bond- most important for organic chemistry - Chemistry is about making and breaking covalent bonds (restriction enzymes, etc.) - Hydrogen o Not covalent o Ex. H20: oxygen electronegative, hydrogen electropositive  H of one molecule and O of other bond- not sharing electrons, not stealing them either o Important in DNA and protein structure  2 strands of DNA joined by hydrogen bonds o H and O/N, usually - Molecular structure explains function o Structure of DNA allows it to encode your information o Important! - Ionic bonds are simple - Hydrogen- involved in pH regulations- very important o Citric acid, acetic acid, etc. o Need buffers- very bad if blood gets too acidic (diabetics)- death - Triple bonds- can be explosive - Space-filling model- shows electron cloud - Linus Pauling- secret of life is ability for one molecule to recognize another o Space-filling molecule- can see how one molecule fits into the other o Hard to visualize 3D- so we’ll draw in 2D - First organic molecule- methane o Carbon can form 4 bonds o Interesting geometry- all go off in different directions o Allows carbon to make loads of different combinations/structures - Weak bonds o Hydrogen o Van der Waals - Molecules have to change shape- confirmational protein o Flexibility o Transient bonds - NH3 (ammonia) and water form hydrogen bond - Van der Waals- geckoes use this to stick to walls o Geckoes are everywhere in Portugal o Hang by streetlights at night time o Hair structures on feet - Molecules can be left-handed or right-handed o Cheap vitamin E’s: loads of useless isomers, body only recognizes a few - Sh
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