BIOL 1902 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Monarch Butterfly, Hoverfly, Cottontail Rabbit
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When a group of unrelated animals are all defended and have similar appearances,
(such as the milkweed beetle and milkweed bug) this is known as mullerian mimicry.
●when a harmless species resembles a harmful species / mimics the warning
signals directed at a common predator.
○the harmless species is a mimic of the model, harmful species.
●example: the monarch butterflies and the viceroy butterflies. the monarch
butterfly is the one containing the poison, but the viceroy doesn’t and looks
really similar to it. the viceroy is edible but animals who have eaten the
monarch butterflies are less likely to eat the viceroys since they look the same.
however, the viceroy has a line at the back of its wings that the monarch does
○monarch = poisonous, model.
○viceroy = edible, mimic.
○this is a form of batesian mimicry.
●example: bumblebee and hover fly.
○bumblebee = stings, model.
○hover fly = harmless, mimic.
●the number of models > number of mimics. the more models there are, the
more mimics there will be. also, mimics can only be present in the same
season where the models are present.
You don’t always have to be brightly colored to have a form of chemical defence.
●Some toads have the toxin bufotalin in their skin glands.
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