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BIOL 1902 (382)
Lecture

Wk 4.doc

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1902
Professor
Michael Runtz
Semester
Winter

Description
SOME NATURAL HISTORY NOTES FOR WEEK 4HOW ANIMALS SURVIVE SUBZERO TEMPERATURESPROBLEMBELOW FREEZINGSUBZERO TEMPERATURES MAKE WATER FREEZEIT TURNS TO ICEIF WATER IN CELLS OF LIVING ANIMAL IT FREEZES AND EXPANDS AND CELLS BURST AND THE ORGANISM DIES SO SADTWO DIFFERENT WAYS ANIMALS GENERATE THEIR INTERNAL TEMPERATURESENDOTHERMS GENERATE HEAT INTERNALLYEXAMPLESBIRDS AND MAMMALS ECTOTHERMS LARGELY CONTROLLED BY THE TEMPERATURE OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT EXAMPLES FROGS SNAKES TURTLES INSECTS AND SPIDERS ADAPTATIONSTWO MAIN SOLUTIONS TO THE COLD PROBLEM1 ESCAPE THE COLD EITHER BY LEAVINGMIGRATION OR BY GOING DORMANT 2 STAY ACTIVE AND DEAL WITH THE SUBZERO TEMPERATURESENDOTHERMS THAT REMAIN ACTIVE STAY WARM BYA INCREASING BODY INSULATION TO TRAP AIR AND BODY HEATMAMMALSON THE OUTSIDE OF THEIR BODIES GROW EXTRA HAIRTWO COATSA OUTER COAT GETS THICKERLONGER COARSER GUARD HAIRSB PUT ON LONG JOHNSWOOLLY UNDERFUR EXAMPLE FOXESBIRDSINCREASE FEATHER MASS IN TWO LAYERSA CONTOUR FEATHERS OUTSIDE B DOWN FEATHERS UNDERNEATH CONTOURSOME INCREASE TOTAL FEATHER MASS BY 50 EXAMPLES GOLDFINCHES BIRDS ALSO TRAP EVEN MORE BODY HEAT WHEN FLUFF UP THEIR FEATHERS EXAMPLES BLACKCAPPED CHICKADEESMERE HALF INCH FEATHERS FROM OUTSIDE OF FEATHERS TO SKIN DIFFERENCE OF 90 DEG FARENHEIT 50 CB PUTTING ON AN EXTRA LAYER INSIDE THE BODY INCREASE STORES OF BODY FAT 1 SUBCUTANEOUS FAT RESERVESIN MAMMALS SUBCUTANEOUS WHITE FAT IS IMPORTANT FOR INSULATION IN BIRDS MUCH OF THE FAT IS BURNED AS FUEL HEAT IS GENERATED AS BYPRODUCT2 MAMMALS STORE BROWN FAT NEAR HEART AND OTHER VITAL ORGANS BROWN FAT IS A HIGH EFFICIENCY FUELGENERATES MORE HEAT WHEN METABOLIZED THAN DOES WHITE FATHEATING PAD EXAMPLES VOLES AND OTHER SMALL MAMMALS C BEING A WARMER COLOUR WHITE IS WARMER DUE TO LACK OF PIGMENTATION HOLLOW POCKETS THAT TRAP AIREXAMPLES POLAR BEAR ARCTIC FOXPTARMIGANWHYBLACK RETAINS LESS BODY HEAT ESPECIALLY WHEN WINDYAS YOU GO FARTHER NORTH ANIMALS TEND TO BE PALERGLOGERS RULED HAVING A BETTER BODY SHAPE FOR RETAINING HEATSMALLER EXTREMITIES IN NORTHALLENS RULEEXAMPLESLEMMING TAILS CARIBOU AND ARCTIC FOX EARS E REDUCING THE SURFACE AREA OF BODY LOSING HEATLOWER OR SMALLER SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO NEARER TO 11 BERGMANNS RULE TEND TO FIND LARGER OR ROUNDER ANIMALS FARTHER NORTH
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