River 2200 16 Sep 2013 08350955 (Dr. Shibu Pal)
Individual and Organizational Motivation
"Motivation is one behavioural aspect that people have been wondering about for a long time. So the question is,
what makes us want to do something. we have seen under some conditions we put more effort in to doing something
and we do not do that for something else, and even if we control the conditions underwhich you may want do so
something that doesn't mean under the same conditions he will want to do something. people are different in their
why do we need to know this?
as a manager you need to understand how to motivate subordinates
we only halfknow the answers to these questions, there is still a lot to learn about motivation.
many explainations we will scratch the surface today. There are whole courses on motivation
1. reinforcement theory
3. equity theory
4. expectancy theory (comprehensive and the prof's favourite)
5. goalsetting theory
7. job design
classical conditioning (Pavlov ring a bell, feed the dog)
you hear the footsteps of the boss, and you start working.
this type of conditioning doesn't work very well on humans too intellegent
operant conditioning (Skinner given an operant (prize) and accociating such a thing with a
bahaviour can reinforce the behaviour.)
very popular in the 60's expecially in books on child rearing. Do your homework, get
candy. Positive reinforcement (Reinforcement): Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a
stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner
box experiment, a stimulus such as food or a sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages
in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever. This procedure is usually called simply reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement (Escape): Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the
removal of an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. In the Skinner box
experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage
until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is
Positive punishment (Punishment) (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation"): Occurs
when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise,
resulting in a decrease in that behavior. Positive punishment is sometimes a confusing term, as it
denotes the "addition" of a stimulus or increase in the intensity of a stimulus that is aversive (such as
spanking or an electric shock). This procedure is usually called simply punishment.
Extinction: Occurs when a behavior (response) that had previously been reinforced is no longer
effective. For example, a rat is first given food many times for lever presses. Then, in "extinction",
no food is given. Typically the rat continues to press more and more slowly and eventually stops,
at which time lever pressing is said to be "extinguished."
after awhile, people get tired of punishment. So you should work on Negative Reinforcement and Positive Reinforcement.
Operant Conditioning Types
in some conditions intermittent reinforcement works better th