Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
Carleton (20,000)
BUSI (700)
Lecture 2

BUSI 2101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Equity Theory, Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning

Course Code
BUSI 2101
Troy Anderson

of 2
OB Busi 2101
Lecture 2
Reinforcement theory:
Behavior Conditioning
- Classical (Pavlov)
- Operant (Skinner)
Pleasant +add: Positive reinforcement
Undesirable/noxious +Remove: Negative reinforcement
Pleasant/desirable + Remove: Extinction
Undesirable/noxious +Add: Punishment
Operant Conditioning
- Continuous
- Intermittent
Maslow (Hierarchy Needs) Pyramid:
Self- actualizations Needs
Self-Esteem Needs: Dignity
Socialization Needs
Security Needs
Physiological/Survival Needs: Safety Needs
Equity theory (J. Stacey Adams)
My outcome = Other’s Outcome
My input Other’s Input
Inequity Theory
My outcome Does not equal Others Outcome
My input Other’s Input
Expectancy theory (Vroom/Lawler/Porter)
Expectancies (or Probabilities) of:
Effort Performance: if I try am I likely to succeed?
Performance Outcome: If I succeeded, what will be the outcome/ reward/
Valence of Outcome: Is the outcome desirable or undesirable?
- If Desirable, how important?
- If undesirable, how badly should I try to avoid it?
Environment: coworkers help for example
Motivation Effort Performance Outcome
M= p (E----P) * p (P----- O) * v (Outcome)
V(outcome): Valence of the outcome
p: Probability
P: Performance
From the employers perspective, they have to make sure that their employee has the
ability and believes he can do it and then make sure the outcome is certain! And finally
make sure he wants the outcome “badly”
Goal-setting theory(Locke)
Goal-Directed Effort
Ability and Environment (tools employee
Goal Specificity
Goal Difficulty
Goal Commitment
Goal Acceptance
Goal-Directed Effort leads to performance, which leads to intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.
These rewards lead to satisfaction.
Intrinsic: Something makes u feel gd inside
Extrinsic: u take a company car, promotion for example
McCelland (Needs model – formulated)
Job Design (based on higher order needs)