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Lecture #4 - Oct. 4.docx

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Carleton University
Communication Studies
COMM 2301
Tokunbo Ojo

COMM 2301 Lecture #4 – Oct. 4 – Media Effects: Framing & Agenda-setting Theories Mid-Term Exam – 30% -3 questions, pick 2 (subdivided into smaller categories) “The Press may not be successful in telling us what to think but is stunningly successful in telling us what to think about” – Bernard Cohen, 1963 (SNL comedy on Sarah Palin, everyone remembers her saying she can see Russia from her house) -Agenda-setting -“Ability of media to focus public attention on a few issues and/or the events at the exclusion of others” -See things in certain ways, what they want us to see, setting an agenda of what to show us, showing certain things and keeping other things buried -Results = how we characterize race, stereotypes, people, certain events/information, politicians -News: what is selected and not hidden from us, not all info is shown, selective, constructed (only 5 mins on radio, only 10 pages in newspaper), what is most important/prominent Agenda-setting = three-part process 1) Media Agenda (news media, influential media, polling agenda, entertainment media) 2) Public Agenda (interest groups, influentials, family/groups/fields, issue publics) 3) Policy Agenda (President/PM, lower/upper house, committees, political party, bureaucracy) *Cyclical cycle and Real-World effect all -Ongoing process (all part of same society) Formula for the “construction” or “packaging” of news ^ -5 Ws and 1 H -Who says What in the society, When, Where, Why and How (There will always be a position taken, and always another side of the story) Distinction between: -“Issue” and “Event” -Event: “is defined as discrete happenings that are limited by space and time” Ex: Breaking into Building overnight at Carleton -Issue: “is a cumulative series of related events that fit together in a broad category” Ex: Broad/Various crimes of Break and Entry Gate-Keeping -Selection or filtering of what event or issue becomes ‘newsworthy’ -News values = Criteria for newsworthiness: -Impact (how many people does it affect) -Proximity (how many people are close to the event) -Timeliness/Currency (has to be recent or people aren’t interested) -Prominence (how important to the real world/people is it really) -Conflict/Bizarre (people love strange stories o
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