CRCJ 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Autonomic Nervous System, Amygdala, Psychoticism

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Criminology
Oct 30
Not all criminology is not etiological
Positive Philosophy
-August comte (founder)
-based on facts, what is observable, is empirical, trying to prove or falsify a thesis. Focused on
measuring, predicting human behaviour, is also objective
-studying criminals like it is a science
Criminal anthropology
Criminologica
Positive criminology
-there is something abnormal with individuals who commit crime
-or social factors that are responsible for crime
-Lombroso was very fond of physiological factors that would determine if someone is a criminal or not
Assault on classical criminology
-positivist would say it makes no sense to rationalize crime
-instead of deterrence the focus is on incapacitation and rehabilitation.
-born criminals cannot be cured, they must be incapacitated. Others must be rehabilitated
-people advocate for punishment to fit the actor, not the act.
Biological Theories
Physiognomy: Della Porta
-he would liken humans to animals. He would make drawings showing proximity of criminals to animals.
Lavater
-study what is visible, we can have access to what is not.
-more and more people are looking for a science to study criminals.
Phrenology
-Gall: would study the skull
-more active an organ is, the larger it will be
-smallest ones are the ones we share with animals, impulsivity, sexuality.
-higher ones are moral judgement, intelligence, empathy. These will regulate the lower ones
-a civilized man will have more developed higher ones to control the lower ones
-also an organ of murder in brain. Relabelled organ of destructiveness.
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-size of organs can be modified, through treatment.
-george combe’s typology: some criminals have free will
-habitual criminal: can’t be corrected. Should not be punished for their biology. They should be
segregated from the community
-criticism of Pennsylvania: total isolation isn’t good
Lombroso’s criminal anthropology
Charles Darwin
-we should not protect the weak (sick, diseased etc..) . Since now they reproduce.
-against welfare programs
Social Darwinism
-laissez-faire attitude
-to make sure humanities process continues we cannot help those who are not deserving and who
contaminate it with weak genes.
Anthropology of race and colonialism
Lombroso’s criminal man (1876)
-born criminal
-became chief figure of intellectual movement to find physiological differences with criminals and non-
criminals
-they are inferior race, animals
Craniometry
-measuring the size of skulls by inserting rocks inside.
Anthropometry
-measuring anything on the body, ears, cheekbones
Born criminal
-tattoo’s proved their criminal behaviour. Also showed they were less sensitive to pain than normal men
Mattoid
-anarchist
-people refusing legal authority
-combatting power in society
Ocassional Criminal
-pseudo criminal: crimes happen by mistake, opportunity. Not true criminal
-criminaloid
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