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HIST 1300 (127)
Lecture 4

Hist1300 Lecture Four.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1300
John Maker

Laurier’s Sunny Ways The 1891 election was largely fought out over the issue of continentalism versus continued support for the National Policy. -tariffs will create a national, Canadian economy by protecting and encouraging manufacturing in the east and providing guaranteed markets and exports of staple goods from the West -John A. MacDonald died in June 1982 and the conservative party entered a crisis phase Laurier’s Sunny Ways: Sought compromise on issues that divided the nation, like the Manitoba schools question which ended wit the Laurier- Greenway Compromise. Manitoba Schools Question -Would French language and culture survive in Western Canada? -Public Schools Act, 1890 and abolished French as official language -series of litigations over legality of abolition -feds could intervene if constitution not followed …. But would it? -major election question in 1896 The Laurier- Greenway Compromise ended the Manitoba schools question. The Laurier- Greenway Compromise -catholic instruction allowed in public schools -french as teaching language allowed -school by school basis -catholic school board without public funding The Laurier Boom: Under Laurier’s watch, and the adoption of parts of the National Policy, Canada experienced unprecedented expantion. -cows on 5 street, Ottawa, July 1900 -idealized image of Vancouver for advertising purposes, 1898 Immigration and the Settlement of the West The geography of the western Canada can be divided into three main categories: arid, short grass prairie, and park land (long grass prairie) -Mennonite Settlements (began in 1873) -Russian Doukhobors bound for Canada in 1898 -Icelandic settlement at Gimli, Manitoba in mid 1870 -Mormons settled in Alberta at Cardston, Sterling, and Magarth beginning in 1887 The Immigration Boom: 1896-1911 PUSH FACTORS: -industrial revolution in Europe -farm land depleting -religious freedom PULL FACTORS: -economic boom -free land -best land was in Canada- after the closure of the American frontier in 1890 The Staple Cash Crop: Wheat -Red Fife Wheat had been brought to upper Canada by Duncan Fife (Scotland) in the early 19 C -The Prairies needed a spring wheat that would mature earlier through a short growing season but provide equal quality -Canadian government instrumental in providing the strain of wheat necessary for prairie conditions through experimental farm stations Marquis Wheat, developed by Charles E. Saunders in 1908, was the answer as it matured one week earlier than Red Fife. Clifford Sifton -Laurier’s Minister of the Interior -responsible for settling the West -two tenets of his policy: free land and the Railway reserves Laurier’s and Sifton’s Immigration policy differed mainly in the degree of marketing and opening immigration to the Eastern Europeans. Sifton encouraged immigration from the European countries while discouraging immigration of Asians, blacks, Italians, and urban Englishmen… he had a very specific idea on the “perfect” immigrant. Immigration policy discriminated against specific groups: Chinese, Jews, east Indians, and African Americans. Social Darwinism applied the principles of evolution to human relations and social organization. The Social Gospel Movement applied Christian principles to correct social ills. Social gospellers believed: -people are inherently good -people err because of their environment and social conditions -changing the social environment will help improve social ills The Women’s Christian Temperance Union preached temperance in all things to promote the greater moral good. -Women were prominent in the social reform movement because it was a natural extension of their role as mothers in society Canada, the Second British Empire, and the Boer War Pax Brittanica -the imperial century (1815-1914) -defeat of major European rival -unchallenged sea power -overseas expansionism Imperial Defence Issues -ASIA: East Indian Company -INDIA: Raj -AUSTRALASIA: Naval Defence -CARIBBEAN: Naval Defence -AFRICA: The Scramble -EUROPE: Rivals -NORTH AMERICA: US Relations Imperial Costs Mounting -royal navy -imperial army -administrative and bureaucratic costs -rebellions (Indian Mutiny, Sudan, Boxer) -wars (crimea, Egypt, south Africa) -metropolitan issues affecting imperial policy (Ireland, labour, poverty, liberalism) The End of the Pax Brittanica -rising defense costs -imperial competition -breakdown of continental order; ottoman empire, italy and germany, industrialization of japan, Germany, USA -German naval threat -European alliances; triple alliance, triple entente Canada Leading the Way -Canada: 1867 -Australia: 1901 -New Zealand: 1907 -Newfoundland: 1907 -Union of South Africa: 1910 English Canadian Support -imperial federation -British empire league -orange ord
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