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Lecture 3

HIST 3109 Lecture 3: HIST 3109 Lecture 3

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HIST 3109
Rod Philips

Monday, January 23, 2017 HISTORY 3109 Lecture 3: Alcohol in Medieval Society (1000 to about 1500) - Population growth from about 1000-1350, after this the plague killing a bunch of people, and then the population went up at 1500 then stayed the same and went up again in 1720 (Europe) - Deaths, births, immigration (in or out), effected the population - 1000-1500 is a time of growth, decline, and stabilization - increasing demand for food, drink, land, clothing, etc - this increased the productive demand and became dependent - increase in production of food (alc) was needed to sustain the population - Climate change from 1000: agriculture 1300 is a period of warming • - natural sources can tell this or people stories by their stories and their records • Stats and weather can help determine this, was their a early frost? a dry summer? etc. this would effect the years • the Harvest determined what the next year would be like, a good harvest you had enough to eat and have a good year • the warming period was important cause it transformed agriculture, it enabled people to grow certain crops in different parts of the world and areas • a balance between resources and the population - Population growth: urbanization; urban economy • increased urban population means no production of food • rural areas produce foods where urban consume foods • to sustain a population you need a strong rural to be able to produce food • this makes a tension between country and city life • urbanization became important for the brewing industry 1 Monday, January 23, 2017 • urban economy made a demand for the breweries - Emergent alcohol “industry” • alcohol began to be taxed • theres a gender shift in beer production - it used to be dominated by women but became to men by coming out the house production and into commercial production - Ale/Beer mainly domestic:frequent, busters until mid-1300s - Urban Breweries:regulation, licencing, taxation • regulations to brew beer you needed to be a member of a guild? • women couldn't join the guild in their own right but could become a member if they became a widow of a member of the guild • women continued to make beer in the country but not in the cities • regulations on who can brew, where they can brew, and • regulated the standards, the cities regulated where they could brew (brewery had to be built of stone and not wood for fire hazards, for the fires had to use sticks to prevent sparks,regulations on how much water they can draw), • water was safe apparently in this class???? • a shift from women in their homes making beer to in 300 years this commercial brewing — transformation in the beer production - Ale to beer: gruit to hops, beer trade: Hamburg • Ale vs beer - Ale is made without hops • hops are a vine, its the flower of the plant thats used, it gives a bitter taste and is a preservative • before this was done by using gruit which wasn't as good of a preservative • Hops allowed for beer to last longer • a trade in beer was now able to be done because it latest longer • Beer used to be produced by women (Brewsters) 2 Monday, January 23, 2017 • when live scale production began it became more difficult to produce ale • Hamburg(Germany) was the beer trade • wasn't hard to replicate the Hamburg style beer and then it started to get produced in different places there was no property rights on this • beer became more regional because unlike wine everyone could brew it • important to remember that trading back in this time was hard because there wasn't roads to be able to move things on land but moving on water was easier to do - Wine: Geographical expansion, hectarage extension (1 ha = 2.5 ac) • vineyards were built on slopes • people were abandoning their vineyards to avoid the plague - Christianity, monasteries • Christianity was helpful on wine production by building on the grape vine in the old testament • wine representing the blood of Christ • Monasteries were religious houses where monks lived began to produce wine and beer • a lot of them sold their production to the communities that were not needed in the monasteries • Barbarians were beer drinkers not wine • Christians rejected beer? • Monasteries had rules on praying times and diet, most important order is Benedict rule ? - Wine isn't good for monks but they cant get along without wine so they just limited their consumption, and later beer became into their diet and were allowed 2X as much beer as they could wine because of the alcohol content • The rule at large was if you could go without alcohol then do so but if you cant then drink small amounts, same with sex • The church regulated the consumption as well as other factors in their life • Penitentials: to guide priests 3 Monday, January 23, 2017 - getting drunk you have to do a penits? might be bread and water for a week
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