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HIST 3708
Professor Wolfart

January 4th, 2011 - Basic theological and church historical background 1.Why study the Reformation? - Tells us something about the present (the complexity of Christianity, etc.) - Estimated 30,000 Christian denominations; most are Protestant - It affected things outside of the Christian sphere - Economic, political, cultural, and social systems are linked to the Reformation - The textbook: the Reformation is important to study because of its distance from us; it is a remote concept, separated from us by 500 years, yet very useful as a historical orientation point for understanding modernity; the relevance cannot be increased by collapsing the ‘gap’ - Paradigm of Ren.-Ref. (Renaissance-Reformation) has been replaced by ‘Early Modern European’ history (starts 1500 - splits the difference between the beginning of the Renaissance and the completion of the Reformation - ends 1750/1800) - How did we come to be modern as individuals and as societies, etc.? - Teleology: most conceptions of Early-Modern; history is marching towards a certain end - a conclusion and a purpose (ends-oriented history) Eg. would see Luther as being a less-perfect version of ‘us’; incomplete - Our collective memory has been shaped by it, whether we are 1) Protestants, or 2) Non-Christians - Secularity and religiosity are inseparable; the Reformation needs to be studied 2.Late Medieval Christianity in the West - How things stood before the Reformation/things that fueled the Reformation (?) a. Sacramental soteriology: holy/sacred practice + science of salvation = salvation by doing a sacrament (*) i. Omnipresent in Christianity is the idea of salvation and sin; how can one be saved from sin? ii.Can be compared to ‘salvation by faith’ (soteriology mark II) b. Clericalism/hierocracy: clergy are chosen/rule by an ordained clergy i. 10% of the people on the eve of the Reformation were ordained clergy - Special status: tax differences; exempt from military duties; weren’t citizens (can’t vote); couldn’t marry; are diversified even though they are a group separate from the laity; pastoral vs. monastic clergy. ii. Range of titles for members of the clergy - priests, bishops, abbots, archbishops, cardinal-bishops, etc. - Mainz, Cologne, and Trier (3 archbishops who were on the council to elect the H.R.E.) iii. The Priesthood of all Believers - Whoever is able to use ‘by faith alone’ can be their own priest (?) c. Eschatology/apocalyptic: idea that we exist in time, and that time has a creation and an end (eschaton) i. Lindberg: the reason Augustine wrote about time is not because he was worried about time, but because it is a particularly Christian concept ii.Imagine the end of time, and think they know what to expect iii. Have to understand the mood of the people who partake in these activities iv. Polemical: writing combat -- overstating something in rhetoric v. 1516: year before the Reformation (Image: Mural by Matthis Miller “The Last Judgement”; anthropophagus; being between heaven and hell; demons and clergy -- Judging the ‘fads’ of the time as everyone goes to hell) p o o p : l a c i g o l o t a c S - (*) Seven Sacraments (operate by their operation) • Baptism • Confirmation • Eucharist, Communion • Confession, Penance • Ordination (becoming clergy) • Matrimony • Last rites ^ 4 of the above (Baptism, Confirmation, Matrimony, and Last rites) are essentially life-stages (birth, puberty, adulthood, and death); + 3 “good” things January 11th, 2011 - Social Historical narratives: Town and County in early modern Germany - How did the ‘carriers’ of the reformation live? - Who were the people involved in the reformation? (All of them, not just the leaders) 1. Syllabus - Will be examined on lecture and textbook material - If we have to prioritize, the textbook is required 2. 20 +/- key dates for orientation * - 1348: Arrival of the black death in Europe - Divide in the Middle Ages; crisis of the Middle Ages; shift in the religious frame - 1414/15: Council of Constance - South of Germany; major poli./econ. centre; world council to deal with the problem of the papal schism (split); Jan Hus (reformer) was invited to defend himself, with supposed safe passage, but was burnt at the stake; realization that issues peraining to Church politics needed to be resolved, but if moving too quickly there will likely be no desired achievement - 1454: First Bible printed by moveable type - Johann Gutenberg: responsible for development of printing press; helped by the production of paper and sticky ink - 1480s: Birth decade of many specific Reformation leaders - all were born in the same generation - Luther; Zwingli; Karlstadt; Muntzer - 1517: “Beginning of the Reformation” - 31st October Luther puts the 95 theses on the Church door - 1520: Publishing of 3 pamphlets by Luther - “On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church” - “On the Freedom of a Christian Man” - “Address to the Nobility Christian Nation” - Each addresses a different sector: the Church and its members; the nobility; and the common - 1521: Luther asked to attend ‘The Diet of Worms’ - Meeting in Worms by all the estate holders; asked to recant himself; he supposedly said “Here I stand, I can do no other, so help me God” when threatened with excommunication; immediately kidnapped and taken into protective custody ** - 1522: Zurich experienced the Froschauer Affair (affair of the sausages) - Leading citizens got together, gorged themselves on sausages, during a time of Lent when they weren’t supposed to eat meat; Zwingli supposedly there but did not eat meat; important because of the defiance of the ritual norms in the late Middle Ages’ Church *** - 1525/26: German Peasants War - The scale and organization was much greater than before; everyone knew about it - engulfed the Southern half of the H.R.E.; won some decisive battles against established authorities; first modern revolution, although quickly failing - 1527: Zwingli in Zurich begins taking steps against the left-wing of the reformation - specifically against the “Re-Baptizers” (Anabaptist) - Today, Mennonites; disagree with the common ideas of when/how baptism should happen - think only adults can make this decision - Zurich’s town council (secular) and Zwingli try and execute these ‘heretics’ by drowning - Reformation takes off quickly after 1517; its a debate between proceeding slowly (Luther “Against the robbing, murdering hordes of Peasants”; Zwingli), and going all in (Karlstadt) - 1529: Radical reformers are out; mainstream reformers want to get their stories straight; issue arises to separate Luther and Zwingli - Eucharist - Asked to come together for a public conversation; 14 points of the agenda - Agreement on 13 points; disagreement on the Eucharist - Zwingli argues that there is no real presence in the bread and wine and sees it as symbolic, whereas Luther sees consubstantiation - the body and blood of Christ actually exist within the bread and wine - Becomes clear that even if they can’t agree, they must decide what they stand for; produce things called ‘Confessional Statements’: elaborate and argumentative, subtle, effectively documents to where communities subscribe, which are then submitted to the highest power (Emperor) - 1530: Augsburg Confession: one of the most important for Protestantism - 1531: Battle of Kappel - Swiss Protestants vs. Swiss Catholics - Zwingli decides to lead the forces of Zurich into battle; he dies - had he had the extra years that Luther had, things might have been quite different - 1531: Establishment of the Schmalkaldic League (Protestants) - Get together and agree to a mutual self-defense pact against Catholic forces - 1534: Act of Supremacy - English Monarch becomes the supreme head of the C. of E. by default - In France, Reformers sneak into the King’s bedroom and cover it in reform papers; King not happy - England are embracing the reform, France are avoiding it - Munster, establishment of an Anabaptist kingdom where polygamy, sodomy etc. happen; represented as immoral - 1536: Calvin’s “The Institutes” **** - Publication in Switzerland of the first edition - 1546: Catholic attempt to undo the reformation by force; series of wars - The Schmalkaldic wars - Charles V (Hapsburg) vs. Schmalkaldic League - Charles V won, even though the league had more money and more support, the emperor was distracted by the New World and the Ottomans - 1546: Death of Luther - Fight emerges over his legacy; on-going debate - 1548: Augsburg interim - Interim solution which establishes by confessionalism that if you are Protestant you have to tolerate the re-build of Catholicism in your area - 1555: Religious Peace of Augsburg - Ruler can decide whether a place is going to be Protestant or Catholic - Gives Protestants a right to exist - Age of Religious Warfare commences - 1572: Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre - Religious wars of France are just beginning - 1581: Book of Concord - Lutheran causes compiled in a book, sent around for people to subscribe - 1617: 100 year celebration of the original theses - 1618: Beginning of the Thirty Years War - Defenestration of Prague - Throwing out of diplomats, central to the start of the Thirty Years War 3. Social historical orientation to Reformation HISTORICAL - On the cusp of modernity, life was nasty, brutish and short (Thomas Hobbs) - It wasn’t this way for everyone, historical variation depending on time and place, and the type of person (Historical and Social location) - Crisis of the Late Middle Ages - Arrival of the plague and syphilis - Epidemic phase of the black death likely took 30% of the population - Economic and social crises; as population levels dropped, labour costs skyrocketed - Ordinance of Laborers 1348 (England) - Mandates that everyone up to 60 has to work - setting of a retirement age - Against workers bargaining collectively for arbitrary wage levels - (Forced regulation of labour market) - H.R.E. saw intensification of serfdom (peasants who are tied to the land - no mobility; unfree labour; children of serfs are serfs); lords produced documents and codified legal papers to show who was a serf - Comeback of Roman law - Adam and Eve, digging and spinning, and no noblemen present (little rhyme) - Monarchs become recognized by those below the nobility as being higher than the nobility - power of monarchs is on the rise - Challenge to the papal church, declination of the Church - 1309: Avignon Papacy: putting the papacy under the protection of the King - 1324: Marsilius of Padua wrote “English Defender of Peace” - 1439: Lorenzo Valla exposes the “Donation of Constantine” as a forgery; shows that Latin being used could not have been penned when it supposedly was SOCIAL - Estates: 1st: noble estates (those who fought); 2nd: commoners (those who worked); and 3rd: clergy (those who prayed) - Commoner got further divided; distinction between rural (peasants) and urban (burghers - citizens) - With increase of rural hardship (serfdom), the attraction of urbanism was clear: “city air makes you free” - As urban centers grew in all realms of importance, they had to develop urban constitutions and governance - increasingly subject to ‘corporatism’ - Seeing the city as a metaphorical body, where everyone plays a role, is replacing the idea of the Church as a body - Economic and food-supply crises were commonplace due to the rise of money currencies; inflations etc. - Savonarola - “The reformation was an urban event” p. 33 textbook * Chronology beginning p. 380 in the textbook ** According to the Luther Church, Luther did it all *** Reformation of ideas and of actions **** Although both magisterial, Luther and Calvin’s reforms were seen as being separate - Calvin’s seen as ‘the second’ January 18th, 2011 - Cultural Historical narratives: Popular religion and “the media” in early modernity - Orientation and engagement 1. Introductory Remarks - Four basic narratives - Theological/religious; what theologians of the time were thinking as it happened - Social-economic; what are the conditions of the late middle ages that account for the emergence of the stratum which is responsible for the reformation - Cultural-historical; (being discussed today) - Political-diplomatic; (being discussed next week) - From the outset, the textbook links these together. In reality, they were not unrelated; it is a cliche to try to draw lines between them. It is particularly true of this period of study that we say ‘religion wasn’t separable from other spheres’; it is said that religiosity is a public undertaking. It is a cliche that it is not the job of the historian simply to reconstruct the past - an impossible task 2. Documents discussions 3. Method and Theory discussion 4. Cultural Narratives of the Reformations 5. Quiz (Open book!) 6. Announcement *Had to leave to go home February 1st, 2011 - Special Topic #1: Reformation Iconoclasm 1.Backgrounder on Iconoclasm - Christians consider themselves monotheists of the Jewish tradition - The source of their monotheism is the Old Testament - Jewish profession of faith - Part of the tradition is the struggle of Israel to conform to the system - Exodus - Golden Calf story: Moses goes to mount Sinai for 40 days and 40 nights to talk to God for the commandments; Israelites fear he won’t return, make a golden calf and an alter on which they sacrifice to the golden cow... Moses is angry, comes down and smashes the commandment tablet, he replaces one with “you shall not make idols” - The alter is what made it problematic - Following the first commandment “you shall have no other Gods”, the second is “you shall not make any idols” - The monotheistic principle is expanded to say no idol worship - idolatria - Adiaphora (things that don’t matter; indifferent things) - “Images are the books of the laity” Gregory I - Many Christians developed the opinion that the worshipful use of images (icon; Greek) was not only acceptable but desirable -- Iconodulia - Idolatria = bad; iconodulia = good - Often disputes over where to draw the line - 800s the Eastern and Western halves of the Church centered on the city centers of Rome and Byzantium (Constantinople) - Always in competition with each other, over centuries, leading to the great schism - Iconoclastic controversy in the 9th C - The Eastern church entered a radical icon removal/smashing -- Iconoclastia (image breaking) - Returned in the form of 2D paintings - Images in the West never changed, so existed in many forms, including Fresco art and some stained glass production - 3D images were widely used and served - not called icons (this term is reserved for 2D) - 3D statuary in the West ranged from elaborate hollow vessels containing the saints’ relic (Reliquary) - Moulded terra-cotta, carved statuary in stone or wood - Remained the situation in the Roman church from the medieval period, all the way through to the early modern period - The Late medieval period, eve of reformation, saw massively increased use of such images -- image production on the rise - Would pool resources, spiritually and financially - Both high and low communities invested in statues - in low communities because they wanted to replicate higher - France and Switzerland - great stained glass work, invested a great deal of cultural capital and real capital in it - Switzerland and southern Germany became unparalleled in the construction of wooden sculptures - If you were orthodox (on the straight and narrow), you were on a trajectory that supported images as part of worship - Thus the bishop of Bamburg (Germany), Jacob Feucht, in the 1550s, expressed the orthodox catho
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