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Lecture 4

LACS 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Monroe Doctrine, Platt Amendment, Fulgencio Batista


Department
Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Course Code
LACS 1002
Professor
Silvina Danesi
Lecture
4

Page:
of 2
Integration into the International Economic System (1850s-1920s)
Integration into the World Economy
- Colonial Past: colonies were producers of primary goods and consumers of manufactured
products from Spain and Portugal
Contextual differences before and after the wars of independence
-before: Spain/Portugal; after: northern european countries (the US - 20th century)
-before: european conquest; after: european industrial revolution
The Export-Import Model
- governments applied principles of economic liberalism; implemented “market-oriented”
policies to develop the Export-Import model
- principles: open markets; division of labour
- market-oriented policies: favourable to exporters and foreign investors
- 1. new infrastructure
- 2. export industries linked to european needs
- 3. division of communal properties that belonged to indigenous people and the church
- 4. restrictions of the power of the church; tried to establish a secular administration
Consequences of the Export-Import Model
- Latin America and the Caribbean’s economy and prosperity would be tied to the rhythm and
health of the European and North American countries
- 1900-1918 (1914-1918) “Years of Prosperity”
- 1919: Recession; exportation fell sharply
- Great Depression 1930s: Crisis of the Export-Import model
Two Latin Americas
- “one” Latin America
- Oligarchic governments (Argentina, Chile)
- Dictatorial strongmen (Porfirio Diaz 1876-1911 Mexico; Juan Vicente Gomez 1908-1935
Venezuela)
- the “other” Latin America
- US Protectorates, Countries within the US Orbit (central american and some caribbean
countries)
Oligarchic Governments and Dictatorial Strongmen
- creation of the “modern state”
- “order and progress”: positivist ideal - August Comte
- Railway Construction: Palace of Fine Arts (Mexico City); Porfirio Diaz
- Retiro Train Station & Teatro Colon Opera House (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
“Order”
- constitutions
- central power (strong presidential systems)
- social order (repression)
- limited political participation (electoral fraud; persecution of the opposition)
“Progress”
- market-oriented policies & principles of economic liberalism
- large-scale immigration policies (end of slavery)
The “other” Latin America; US Protectorates
- Protectorates = US could intervene in these countries
- 1823: Monroe Doctrine; introduced by President James Monroe
- separate spheres of influence of the Americas and Europe
- non-colonization
- non-intervention
- US would defend Caribbean and Central American countries
- 1904 The Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Theodore Roosevelt
- US had a moral mandate to enforce proper behaviour among the nations of LA
Cuba, the late independence
- end of 19th century: export agricultural society; sugar, tobacco
- 1860s: producing 1/3 of the world’s sugar supply
- US declared war against Spain after ship mysteriously exploded in Havana
- withdrawal of Spanish troops after Spanish-American War 1898
- gov. of Cuba handed over to the US
- US intervention until the 1st Cuban election in 1901
- Cuba gained formal independence in 1902 after accepting under protest the Platt
amendment; introduced by Senator Orville H. Platt
- (protectorate: right of intervention; host US Naval Bases) ex. at Guantanamo Bay “Gitmo"
- US protectorate lasted until 1934; gave up Platt amendment except for Guantanamo Bay,
paid a rent to Cuba for the land
- 1940/44-1952/59 Fulgencio Batista (dictator)
Haiti
- 1804: Independence
- 1915-1934: US Protectorate
- right of intervention + customs control
- army was dissolved; national guard
- customs control lasted until 1941
Panama
- 1903: Panamanian rebellion against Colombia supported by US
- Independence - US protectorate
- US secured control inside and outside the Canal Zone
- rights to build an interoceanic canal - Right of intervention
- 1914: Opening of Panama Canal
- 1936: US gave up most of its rights outside the Canal Zone
- 1977 Torrijos-Carter treaties
- 1999: Withdrawal of US forces
Dominican Republic
- 1844 Independence
- 1905: US Protectorate; customs control
- 1916-1924: US military occupation; creating of the National Guard
- 1930 Rafael Trujillo (chief commander of the national guard) took power until 1961
customs control lasted until 1941