Hobbes is an english philosopher, materialist and one of the farther of modern political thought.
His best known work is in political philosophy, Leviathan, written in 1651.
De Cive was written in 1642.
Hobbes lived through the English Civil War which sent him into exile in Paris (he was a royalist)
The civil war convinced him that any government is better than civil war.
But since all governments are prone to end up in civil war, the only government monarchy.
And that is why people should submit to the absolute authority of civil government.
Chapter 1: state of nature - a state without government.
The first premise: man is not fit for society; while men are naturally inclined to gather together for protection and survival, society is note than a natural
gathering of men in the face of danger.
In society there are contracts, rules, rights, etc. that need to be observed.
To say that men are not fit for society doesn’t mean that they don’t want to.
A lot of societies have come into being by accident, and not because men are social animals.
What men desire naturally is either glory or gain.
The good is subjectively decided.
If society in the state of nature is formed on any principles, these are the principles of self-love and mutual fear.
State of nature is decided into:
1. Bare state of nature.
There are no laws, but everyone is equal to everyone.
“Nature has given to everyone a right to all” which implies that profit is the measure of right.
The natural equality has to do with the first natural right: everyone has the right to protect himself.
So, everyone has the right to do whatever is nessary to protect themselves including hurting or killing other people.
From here Hobbes concludes that men have natural desire and will to hurt other people in order to protect themselves.
So, if by natural right, one invades and another resists, this inevitably leads to the sate of permanent war.
Peace is the “time remaining” (when men are not warring against each other).
The state of permanent war is an undesirable state, and so men have to figure out how to get rid of it.
Two ways to get rid of the state of permanent war:
No lasting peace based on constraint or c