Lecture No. 4 Security and World Politics Friday, February 1 , 2013
I. War and International Security
War (and peace) in Western political thought
Causes of war and level of analysis in IR
Security and was in the 20th century: World Wars, Cold War, peacekeeping
The problem of anarchy was evident in certain states. Security situation arises from problem within the state as
well as between the states. War is the father of all things; because it gives rise to the formation of states and social
order. Just War tradition was an attempt to outline a number of criteria where war was acceptable; the cause of
the war had to be just. Perpetual Peace arose with Kant in 1795.
There are three different levels that are the causes of war: human nature, the state, the international system.
Human nature is often seen as violent, and selfish; feminism points out that human nature are also caring.
Maintaining the balance of power means that you would have to go to war.
There was a peace movement in the 19 century that believed that war was in the hearts and minds of women
and men. In order to overcome the problem of war was to educate people about war and replace it with peace in
public opinion. World War I occurred due to “bad” government and the balance of power was maintained by
certain international alliances. To overcome war people would need democracy and collective security
(“idealism”). Rather than seeing security as something for itself, security depends on each other and it needed to
be shared. If one state is threatened by another state, all the other states agree to protect the threatened state. In
the 1930s, this failed when Japan attacked China. This eventually led to World War II in Europe, when there was an
attack on Poland. There was a return to national security and power politics (“realism”). The balance of power was
needed to end WWII.
NATO formed in 1949. Warsaw TO/ “Pact,” in 1955. The bipolar distribution of power contribut