PSCI 1100 Lecture Notes - United Nations Global Compact, Scottish Enlightenment, Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
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POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE
CIVIL SOCIETY (CS) IN POLITICAL THEORY:
• CS = political community (Aristotle)
17th-18th cent. (social contract theory): CS = the state
• CS/the state vs. state of nature (Hobbes, Locke), CS essentially the same as the
Late 18th-19th cent.: CS vs. the state
• CS = market + corporations (+ admin.) (Hegel)
(a) CS = commercial society (Scottish Enlightenment); (global) sphere of production
and exchange (Marx). Ferguson, Smith (Scottish Enlightenment)- commercial society
has some neg. effects on people. Marx- CS was global from the beginning,
(b) CS = voluntary associations (Tocqueville). 19th cent. Important element of US
democracy. Found expression in indiv. That will pursue econ/moral interst on their
20th cent.: CS vs. market and state
• CS = bourgeois institutions and working class assoc. (i.e. basis of class
hegemony/governance and counterhegemony/resistance) (Gramsci).
Dominance and power of capitalist class over working class, and also the realm
of possibility to overthrow the working class.
CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDING OF (GLOBAL) CS:
nongovernmental sphere of communication and association outside and/or in
opposition to states and markets (and international gvt’l organizations):
• not necessarily state-bound → transnat’l/global CS
• counterweight to state and corporate power
• creates publicity and accountability
• generates (global) public opinion
• leads to democratization of (world) politics
CS AND TRANSNATIONAL CS: HISTORY:
• CS, 19th cent. revolutions, and expansion of rights. Human and political rights
• 19th cent. transnational CS: abolitionist, peace, workers’, and women’s
• Early 20th c. CS: promoter of the League of Nations.
• CS and the founding of the UN. NGOs should ensure that human rights made it
into the UN charter
• Steady growth of NGOs since WWII. More involved in interacting with Inter
• Since 1960s: (transnat’l) anti-apartheid, anti-(viet.)war, environm’tal, human
rights, and women’s movem’ts. Western CS movements. Viet. War was one of
the biggest movements.
• 1970s-80s: “CS” overthrows authoritarian regimes in Latin America, East
Asia, and Eastern Europe.
• 1990s: amplification of CS to global CS (esp. UN world conferences)
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