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Lecture

PSCI 1100 Lecture Notes - United Nations Global Compact, Scottish Enlightenment, Kimberley Process Certification Scheme


Department
Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 1100
Professor
Hans Martin Jaeger

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POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE
CIVIL SOCIETY (CS) IN POLITICAL THEORY:
CS = political community (Aristotle)
17th-18th cent. (social contract theory): CS = the state
CS/the state vs. state of nature (Hobbes, Locke), CS essentially the same as the
state
Late 18th-19th cent.: CS vs. the state
CS = market + corporations (+ admin.) (Hegel)
(a) CS = commercial society (Scottish Enlightenment); (global) sphere of production
and exchange (Marx). Ferguson, Smith (Scottish Enlightenment)- commercial society
has some neg. effects on people. Marx- CS was global from the beginning,
(b) CS = voluntary associations (Tocqueville). 19th cent. Important element of US
democracy. Found expression in indiv. That will pursue econ/moral interst on their
own.
20th cent.: CS vs. market and state
CS = bourgeois institutions and working class assoc. (i.e. basis of class
hegemony/governance and counterhegemony/resistance) (Gramsci).
Dominance and power of capitalist class over working class, and also the realm
of possibility to overthrow the working class.
CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDING OF (GLOBAL) CS:
nongovernmental sphere of communication and association outside and/or in
opposition to states and markets (and international gvt’l organizations):
not necessarily state-bound → transnat’l/global CS
counterweight to state and corporate power
creates publicity and accountability
generates (global) public opinion
leads to democratization of (world) politics
CS AND TRANSNATIONAL CS: HISTORY:
CS, 19th cent. revolutions, and expansion of rights. Human and political rights
19th cent. transnational CS: abolitionist, peace, workers’, and women’s
movements
Early 20th c. CS: promoter of the League of Nations.
CS and the founding of the UN. NGOs should ensure that human rights made it
into the UN charter
Steady growth of NGOs since WWII. More involved in interacting with Inter
gvnt organization
Since 1960s: (transnat’l) anti-apartheid, anti-(viet.)war, environm’tal, human
rights, and women’s movem’ts. Western CS movements. Viet. War was one of
the biggest movements.
1970s-80s: “CS” overthrows authoritarian regimes in Latin America, East
Asia, and Eastern Europe.
1990s: amplification of CS to global CS (esp. UN world conferences)
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