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Chapter 6 Notes- Learning .docx

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PSYC 1001
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Chapter 6Learning1212012 63800 PM Learning is divided intoClassical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learningDefinition of Learning for a psychological point of view learning can be seen as something that is relatively durable because sometimes we do not always retain what we learnLearning can cause change in our behavior knowledge what we are doing in universityright now learningcapability attitudeThe change can be in one of them or several of these aspectslearning is all acquired thru some kind of experience sometimes intentional for example reading for an exam or sometimes not intentionallyand not because of simple maturation WalkingLearning how to walkis not seen as learning because it is as a result of our physical maturation purposesconditioning a word that was choosing over learning by the behavioral psychologist because it implied a more mechanical connection between external event in the world and what was going on in our brains Conditioning can also be seen as the same as learningClassicalconditioningGrand father Ivan Pavlov 18491936 He focus was on physiology trying to understand the digestive systems of dogsWhat he found out was even before the dogs were feed the dogs started salivating He then stopped his studies on the digestive system of dogs and went on tostudying why these dogs salivated before the food was actually presented because he knew that the was some kind of association between what was going on in the dogs head and noise and the rattling of the plates before the food was actually presentedWhat he did was he rang a bell before the food was presented but the dogs didnt respond immediately but after several repetitions of ringing the bell and then presenting the food he saw that the dogs began to salivate in response to the bellWe describe the learningconditioning of Pavlov dogs asMeatfoodunconditionedunlearned stimulus USSalivateunconditioned responseUR this is caused by USIn these cases what we mean byunconditionedunlearned is nobody has to teach the dogs to do these things because it is a basic physiological response Bellneutral stimulusUS this was introduced by Pavlov by its nature causes no responsePavlov ended up pairing the US and NS a number of times for a not so smart dog and once for a smart dog and after several of these parings he found out that he could take away the meat and the dogs would start to salivate in response to the bell When this happens we now call the bell a conditionedlearned stimulus CS which caused a conditioned responseCR which was salivating because the dogs learnt the sound of the bell and also learnt that the response should be salivating The dogs learnt salivate when I hear the bellThe dogs have been conditioned to do is hear the bell therefore salivate Classical conditioning terminologyUnconditioned stimulus meatUnconditioned response salivateThe meat and salivating went in hand in hand and they are physiologicalwhat makes them unconditioned is the fact that they were basic reflexesNeutral stimulus bell Conditioned stimulus bell Conditioned response salivate to the bellOther examples of unconditioned responsesUnconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response
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