PSYC 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Police Lineup, Recognition Memory, Free Recall

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25 May 2018
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Unit 5: Eyewitness
Section 1: Memory & Eyewitness Research
Memory
Perception Encoding Short-term Long-term Retrieval
Types of Memory
2 types of memory retrieval:
o recall memory reporting details of previously witnessed event/person
o recognition memory reporting whether current info is the same as previous
info (i.e., lineups)
Eyewitness Research
variety of research methods:
o archival data
o naturalistic environments
o laboratory simulations (most common)
Independent Variables
2 types of independent variables:
o estimator variables variables that cannot be changed (age of witness, lighting,
etc.)
o system variables variables that can vary (questioning techniques, lineup
procedure, etc.)
Dependent Variables
3 types of dependent variables
o recall of the event
o recall of the perpetrator
o recognition of the culprit
Recall of the Event
2 Forms of recall:
o open ended: recount without being prompted
write or say all they can remember
o direct question: witness asked specific questions
Examining Recall Info
amount of info they provided
type of info (central or peripheral)
accuracy of the info (failed to be reported, or falsely recorded)
Recognition Info
typically, police lineup
o photos, voice, etc.
accuracy
o correctly identify the culpit, o oetl state the ulpit ist thee
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type of errors
o idetifig soeoe ho ist the ulpit, o saig the aet thee he the
are
Section 2: Recall Procedures
Police Questioning
Limited ability to collect info:
o Interrupted witnesses during free recall
Distracts them; memory gets interrupted and thus detail can get lost
o Asked short, specific questions
Results in short answers
o Asked off-topic questions
Witness is only responding to the questions, so info not asked about may
not come up
“houldt e i ado ode, i.e., ask aout oie he talkig aout
clothing
o Asked leading questions
Can produce inaccurate details
Wording of Questions
“ashed s. Cotated
o reported higher speeds when word smashed was used
Affects future recall
Wording of question matters
o People recalled seeing broken glass more when used the word smashed, even
though thee ast at all
Memory changed because of the way the question was asked/worded
Misinformation Effect
Witness is provided with inaccurate info
Iopoates the isifoatio i late eall
Implications:
o False or added info provided after event can influence memory
o “utle phasig diffeees sashed s. hit a ias itesses esposes
Memory is reconstructive & easily influenced
Explaining Misinformation
3 theories:
o Acceptable hypothesis
Guess the answer that is expected to be given
o Source Misattribution hypothesis
Able to recall both memories (accurate & new inaccurate), so they may
choose the wrong one
o Memory Impairment hypothesis
The original memory is replaced
Helping the Police Interview
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