Class Notes (838,933)
Canada (511,158)
Psychology (2,716)
PSYC 2400 (274)
Adelle Forth (114)
Lecture 17

Lecture 17

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2400
Professor
Adelle Forth
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 17: Criminal Justice System and Sentencing Tuesday, March 8, 2011 - Quiz is due by Friday - **QUESTION** o All of the following dispositins can be made following a finding of NCRMD, except:  Custody order for detension in a psychiatric facility  Absolute discharge  Conditional discharge  Imprisonment **THIS ONE  All of the above are potential dispositions o Of the few defendants that raise the NCRMD defence in Canada, about __ % are successful  5%  25% *THIS ONE  50%  75%  100% o In the last 5 years crime rates have gone up, stayed the same, or gone down?  64% say Gone down  21% say same  14% say gone up - Sentencing survey o 33% of class said gone up  58% of community o 33% of class said same  30% of community o 34% of class said gone down  12% of community o **community: telephone sample in 2007 o **larger survey: mean age was 50 o **54% of them had some postsecondary education, 60% were employed, 24% were retired—different sample o **Community: stronger belief that crime rate is going up - Property crime rates o 42% of class aid going up  74% of community said going up o 38% of class said staying the same  21% of community said saying the same o 20% of class said gong down  5% of community said going down - Violent crime rates o 32% of class said going up  63% of community o 32% of calss said same  26% of community said same o 36% of class said going down  11% of community said gogn down - We have a get tough policy of crime o The legislation they propose would result in increased number of individuals in prison - **Questions** o What percent of crimes in Canada are violent?  2%  12% **THIS ONE  23%  42% - The public (because of media) tend to focus on violent crime (more than property crime) o Leads to misperception - Crime rates (1999-2009) o There’s a trend toward decrease in crime, both for total and property - Violence and other (drug offenses, driving, etc.) o Violence: slight decrease, not as dramatic as property crime o Most of crime is property crime o So if property goes down,t ypically the total goes down o See an increase for drug/driving offences - Stats Can has switched over to presenting data in a different fashion o Using the Adult Severity Index (one for crime, one for violent crime) o Most crime si pretty minor (vandalism, mischief, theft) o Crime rates captures all the different types, rather than mroe serious o Severity Index takes crime, frequency—weights it o Differential weighting for different types of crimes (homicide weighted the highest,e tc.) o Now presenting data according to index o 22% drop in crime o Even violent crime dropped 6% since 1999 o Even this measure, whcih is more sophisticated measure, clearly indicates drops in total and violent crime - Youth Severity Index (12-18) o Youth crime rate dropped 7% o But youth violent crime increased 10% o **The only type of crime that’s increased is violent youth crime - Age-crime curve o We start out pretty slow, move to 13-15, etc. o See a steep ramp during the adolescent period—start engaging in much more crime o Though we don’t know about before age of 12 o Graph is form official statistics o But it’s unlikely that younger kids could commit more crimes o Anyway, crime peaks at the age of 17—then slow decrease o Very common curve o **Next Tuesday: guest lecture—will talk about what aspects of individual makes them stop crime o This curve suggests we leave most individuals alone- most will desist o We don’t want to have too much intervention- should be very selective when we target high-risk or moderate-risk kids - Violent crime rate and severity o Grey: violent crime severity o Blue: crime severity o Ontario: slightly below average o Provinces in east have lower crime and violent cirme rates o Increasing crime as you move west, certainly with territories (Yukon, NWT, Nunavut)—both in total and violent crime  More First-Nations people there  Poverty, overcrowding in reserves, domestic violence, alcohol abuse, lack of resources  Some of the crime severity could be engaging in behaviours that wouldn’t be illegla here  Higher proportion of men  Younger age—mean age there is 27, mean age in Ottawa is 40 - Incarceration rates o California has been going through major crisis in terms of overcrowding— taking away the gym and putting triple bunk beds in gym with 3-4 feet in between beds o Vast overcrowding in the US prisons o Canada is similar to France and Australia, we’re way above places in Scandinavia in terms of incarceratino rates o Cuba and Russia are high, but always highest for the U.S. o U.S. use incarceration a lot o 1/100 males in US are incarcerated o 1/15 African American males are either on probation or in jail o 1/35 Hispanic men o They’ve moved to a get tough policy o **Harper government talking about increasing penalties for certain types of crime—results in increased incarceration - When you put these individuals together in this system: o Increased stress o Increased conflict o Instituational violence o Staff and inmates injured o Higher rates of suicide o Higher rates depression, anxiety o Because they haven’t hired a huge number of mental health professionals for treatment, the psychologists/psychiatrists in this system are dealing with crisis management (suicide, self-injury) because of the stress o **OVERCROWDED- can’t even have group intervention o We haven’t gotten to that stage yet o Correctional Services Canada does provide teratment and intervention - Big increase in incarceration rates in States started in 1980s—dramatic increase o Problems with drugs—war on drugs—mandatory minimum sentences o Started releasing fewer individuals—started cancelling parole o Three strike law—30 states now have it—third felony offence (theft over $500) results in life sentence (doesn’t have to be violent) - We’re going in that direction now o Mandatory minimum for some types of drug possession o Three strikes for dangerous offender—3 personal injury offenses— assumed to be dangerous offender—very costly for our system, given indeterminate sentence (stay in system until natural death) - How much does it cost for us to keep someone in federal system? o $99,205/year for male o $182,506/year for female o **If government approves get tough policy, there will be 70% increase in the numbers in our federal penitentiaries - Provincial system: cheaper o Get sentence of 2 years less a day o Maximum time is less - Get sentence of 2 years+: go to federal system - We’ve closed down a lot of provincial prisons, built superprisons o Huge facilities, multi-level and multi-security o Makes it a lot cheaper than having a bunch of small ones o Remove individual from community, move outside near Toronto - Corrections and Conditional Release Act o Implemented in 1992 o Balance the safety of the community (primary goal) but exercise reasonable, secure, and humane control of offenders in correctional isntitutions o And assist and encourage offenders to become law-abiding citizens o **Control the offender and provide some mechanism to make them law- abiding citizens - 58 federal penitentiaries across Canada o We’re going to build another 5 or 10 o That’s good for us—can find jobs o 5 regional mental health facilities o 4 regional women’s institutions  Way out of balance  We incarcerate way more men  But there’s also different crime rates o 3 Aboriginal healing lodges  CSC’s acknowledged the great number of Aboriginals  Not workign well with prison system  Healing lodges- elders, spiritualities change how tehy interact with the Aboriginals- lower rates of recidivism  But the Aboriginals face the same challenges when they return to community- recidivism rates haven’t changed -
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