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PSYC 2400 (274)
Adelle Forth (114)
Lecture

Lecture 21

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2400
Professor
Adelle Forth
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 21- Homicidal Offenders Tuesday, March 22, 2011 - syllabus said today would be guest lecture on female offenders—it’s been moved to Thursday - first third of Ch. 11 - Psychopathy assignment—Chris Simmons case—death penalty (changed US determination about juvenile death penalty) - Once Quiz 4 is done, will take the top 3 quiz marks and release the overall quiz mark - Then will release the bonus amount - **Friday, April 1 —TAs should finish marking assignments - Homicide peaked in 1975 o 3.0 (3x higher than what it is here in Ottawa) - Over time, things have been decreasing o Not as low as early 60s, but still general decrease - 2009: 10 homicides in Ottawa - Book says homicide is 2.1 As of last year, it’s 1.8. - Territories: increasing homicide rates - East less than prairie and Western rates - Homicide rate has been decreasing, partly due to older population. o Average age is much older than 20-30 years ago - Territories—many people are younger, many more men—higher rates - Which Canadian city do you think has highest homicide rates? o Winnepeg has been highest rate for a while, it’s third-highest o Toronto wins in number, but rate is based on population o **Abbotsford—small city, highest crime rate for the small population. o And after that, Thunder Bay - US o #1: New Orleans - Homicide rate across world o Dark blue—20 or more o Medium--US o Lighter--Canada—2-5 (and it’s even lower now) o Grey—no data - Canada is 75 out of the world, US is much higher—ranking from 2009 - Homicide rates have always been higher in US—why? o More access to weapons, more people own guns o Population density—higher crowding, more opportunities o Punitive—doesn’t matter what I do—figure I might as well - Certain countries have extremely high rates (El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica) o gangs, drug dealing in these countries o Very low per capita police officers o Corrupt court system, justice individuals - Andora hasn’t had homicide for the last 10 years o Between Spain and France - Homicide in Canada o More men killed than women  Young men (18-25) will die either by accident, or could get killed, or high suicide rates o Females more likely to be killed by intimate partner than are males o Gang-related homicides increasing  125 last year  Abbotsford had some issues with this o Regional differences (western vs. eastern)  Could be related to age and gender o Most likely to be killed by someone you know - 2009 known homicide perpetrator—relationship between offender and victim o Red: acquaintances (48%) o Yellow: family (19%) o Blue: stranger (18%) o Green: spouse (14%) - We’ll talk about serial murders, multiple murders, psychopathy next Tuesday - In the realm of serial killers, typically get strangers - But most homicides don’t come from strangers - That’s why they’re relatively easy to solve—they’ll look at family, friends, spouse - 4 types of homicides in Canada o First-degree murder: planned and deliberate—life in prison, 25 years before parole eligibility (can start applying)  After 15 years, can try to convince jury that you should be let out earlier and be eligible sooner  Faint Hope clause  After Clifford Olsen applied for this type of hearing, government got annoyed and changed legislation—now, multiple-murderers are not eligible  Ex. Hiring someone to kill the victim, killing police officer, committing homicide while doing another offense (sexual assault/kidnapping/hostage taking) o Second-degree murder: everything that doesn’t fit into first-degree category  Same life sentence, but you’ll be eligible for parole between 10 and 25 years  Usually it isn’t the judge that makes this decision in Canada—jury will recommend that you be eligible after a certain number of years (14, 18, 21, etc.) o Manslaughter: unintentional murder, due to criminal negligence (reckless conduct)  Ex. Get in fight at a bar, push someone and he happens to hit his head and die o Infanticide: in Canadian Criminal Code  Female person  Causes death of newly born child  Effect of lactation consequent on birth, mind is disturbed  Don’t have full control of faculties  Should not be held to same degree of responsibility  Maximum sentence is 5 years  **This idea came from England. But a number of years ago, they got rid of that from their criminal code - Katrina Effert o Strangled her newborn son in 2005 in Edmonton o Got pregnant by her boyfriend that she wasn’t with for a long time o She knew she was pregnant, told one of her friends o Hid it from parents o Mother talked about how she seemed to be gaining weight o Went into labour, had the baby in the basement, baby was full term o She took her thong, wrapped it around baby’s head, strangled it o Panicked, ran to backyard, threw baby over fence o Cleaned herself up and helped her father with work o 4 days later, neighbour found the baby in the backyard o Police interviewed—got suspicious—sent her to hospital, did DNA test— matched o She changed her story and said that she told boyfriend to take baby to hospital for adoption—the boyfriend said he hasn’t had any contact with her for months, never saw baby, etc. o **Got convicted of second-degree murder, was given the 10 years minimum prior to eligibility for parole - Angela Kuehl o From Kanata o Was living with common-law, got pregnant o He was travelling a lot, didn’t know o She gave birth, suffocated with plastic bag, tried to revive but couldn’t, but it in the garbage can o Boyfriend saw blood in bathroom o At some point she disclosed what happened—he found out she put baby in garbage, phoned police—they stopped truck, found baby’s body o 25 years old o She’s also charged—convicted of infanticide in 2009, was given 18 months conditional sentence (in community)—didn’t spend time in jail - Neonaticide o Killing baby within 24 hours of birth o Those two cases were neonaticide o That’s what we’re talking about o **Main motive: simply to get rid of unwanted baby  Feel that there’s personal gain to get rid of baby  Decide not to have abortion or adoption  Simply don’t want anyone to know  Tend to be very young—16-18  Single  Do not seek prenatal care (birthing classes, hospital, etc.)  In denial, don’t want to accept the fact that they’re pregnant  Most often conceal the pregnancy  For the younger ones, often talk about fearing rejection/disapproval from parents  Many of the younger also have lack of education (high school dropouts)  Women who older children who kill typically have serious psychiatric/mental disorders  In the case of these women who kill newborn babies, tend not to be pattern of psychiatric illness (depression, psychosis, etc.) **Atypical  Many women who kill children tend to kill themselves— extremely rare in these cases of neonaticide **Atypical - Bimodal classification of homicide o Reactive (affective)  Impulsive, unplanned, response to provocation (fight escalates to homicide)  Victims often relatives  *Most common type of homicide o Instrumental (predatory)  Proactive, premeditated (first-degree), motivated by a goal (money, sex, etc.)  Cold-blooded, no high emotions involved  Serial-killers  Victims often strangers - Prefrontal cortex and aggression o Prefrontal lobe—leads to changes in impulsivity, sense of responsibility, etc. o Raine et al.—41 murderers, PET scan o Reactive murderers less prefrontal activity than predatory o That makes sense—relates to planning, goal direction, control of impulses o Predatory is planned, premeditation - Youth who kill o 12-17 years
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