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Lecture 13

Lecture 13.docx

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PSYC 2500
Kim O' Neil

Lecture 13 Gender stereotypes - How Do We View Men and Women? - Learning Gender Stereotypes How do we view men and women? - Gender Stereotypes: beliefs about how males and females differ in personality traits, interests, and behaviors - Most adults associate different traits with men and women - In North America, males are seen as instrumental, women as expressive • Instrumental traits: dominant, aggressive, independent, competitive • Expressive traits: nurturing, emotional, sensitive - Not shared worldwide:American views on gender are extreme • Gender differences/roles are not innate  Culture or social influences have something to do with it instead Cultural differences in gender stereotypes Learning gender stereotypes - At 12 months, children will look equally at both gender-specific toys (therefore, showing no preference) - At 18 months, they’ll attend to the same-sex toy - At 2 years of age, children will pay more attention to videos of boys playing with Barbie’s than trucks, because it is not consistent with what they would expect - By age 5, US children judge 1/3 of traits as stereotypically as adults do; by age 11, 90% - During elementary-school years, children learn that traits and occupations associated with males have higher status - Older children see stereotypes as general guidelines that are not necessarily binding - Girls tend to be more flexible about stereotypes Differences related to gender - Differences in Physical Development and Behavior - Differences in IntellectualAbilities andAchievement - Differences in Personality and Social Behavior Differences in Physical Development and Behavior - Obvious differences in primary and secondary sexual characteristics - Boys are bigger, stronger, faster, and more active • Being more active could be a socialized behavior, not necessarily biological (parents will encourage more active behavior in boys than girls) - Girls are healthier and better on tasks requiring fine-motor coordination • Fewer prenatal or birth complications • May be engaging with girls at young age that promote these fine-motor skills to develop Gender differences in physical ability Differences in IntellectualAbilities and Achievement - Verbal ability: girls excel at reading, spelling, and writing, and are less likely to have language-related difficulties - Left hemisphere may develop more quickly - Mothers tend to talk more to girls than boys Differences in IntellectualAbilities and Achievement - Spatial ability: boys surpass girls at mental rotation and determining relations between objects in space - Spatial Memory: females tend to have better memory for spatial locations of objects - Math: girls often get better grades and are better at computational skills, but boys excel in math problem solving Differences in Personality and Social Behavior - Aggression: boys are more likely to be physically aggressive and girls more likely to be relationally aggressive - Emotional sensitivity: girls are better able to express emotions and interpret others’ emotions • Some theories might suggest that females are prewired to excel at this type of behavior because they are the primary caregivers of offspring, and it is necessary for them to be able to understand their offspring in order to meet their needs • Females also tend to define themselves more in relation to their group, which means that this skill may be more necessary or beneficial for them • Females tend to want to preserve harmony and friendship, while males promote more of a fight or flight response • The types of toys we give girls foster very nurturing behaviors (e.g., playing with dolls)  Although, these behaviors may already be prewired because if you give the same toy to children of different genders they’ll play with it differently - Social influence: girls are more compliant and girls and wome
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