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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 2500
Kim O' Neil

Lecture 7 Memory - Origins of memory - Strategies for remembering - Knowledge and memory Origins of memory - Infants remember and forget, and can be prompted to remember things that they’ve forgotten - Rovee-Collier’s experiment showed 3 important features of memory existed: • 1. An event from the past is remembered • 2. Over time, the event can no longer be recalled • 3. Acue can serve to dredge up a forgotten memory - Improvements in memory are related to growth in the brain - Amygdala and hippocampus are related to growth in the brain • Develops quite early on (6 months of age) - Frontal cortex is related to retrieval of stored memories • Develops much later (20-24 months of age) Strategies for remembering - Memory strategies: techniques or activities that improve remembering - Preschoolers use simple strategies like touching/looking at an object • Not very effective, but it tells them they should be doing SOMETHING to remember - Older children and adolescents use • Rehearsal a strategy of repeating information that must be remembered (7-8 y.o.)  Ex: rehearsing phone numbers  Not very efficient, but first one we use • Organization structuring material to be remembered so that related information is placed together (like categorizing)  Ex: student trying to remember provinces will place them geographically  Better than rehearsal, but not as good as elaboration • Elaboration embellishing information to be remembered to make it more memorable (such as in study groups)  In grade 2, imagery (visual elaboration) = bad, but by grade 6, visual elaboration = good  Adolescence start using this strategy • Chunking process of organizing related items into one meaningful group  Allows more items to be held concurrently - Metacognition improves with age Metacognitive knowledge - Metacognition: understanding of which cognitive strategies work, and which don’t, and replacing ineffective ones with effective ones - When one strategy doesn’t work, move onto a new one Knowledge and memory - Knowledge helps to organize memory but can distort our recall • If a specific experience doesn’t match a child’s knowledge (differ from script), the experience is sometimes forgotten or distorted to conform to existing knowledge - Scripts: memory structures that describe the sequence in which events occur • For kids, instead of remembering each individual step, they just remember the script • Our scripts are always expanding - People’s memory of their own lives is autobiographical memory • Memory of events that happen to us during our lifetime • Originates in preschool years (emerges gradually) • Important because it helps us construct a personal life history, and create socially shared memories • Asians converse less about past events to kids, so they don’t remember as much as Europeans or NorthAmericans Effects of knowledge on memory - When asked to memorize numbers, adults recalled more than children - When asked to recall positions of items in the matrix that resembled a chess board, the children did better (because they were all skilled chess players). The adults were only novice chess players, and did worse • This demonstrates prior knowledge on memory, because the pieces were placed on the board based on actual games (configurations were familiar to the kids) • The kids could organize the information into chunks Network of knowledge - Script for how to walk a dog Knowledge and memory **p.227** - Infantile amnesia denotes forgetting of events from early in life • Kids tend to rely on language to represent their past (~2 y.o.) • Once language is developed, life events are recorded differently from before they learned language - Preschoolers’testimony can be distorted by adults’suggestions or by learned stereotypes • Kids are very prone to suggestibility Stereotype and suggestion conditions of Sam Stone study **ON EXAM** - Control group presented with event and questioned about it later. 4 neutral interviews. Get neutral interview with specific questions about Sam. - Stereotype group told that Sam is clumsy but nice. 4 neutral interviews. Get neutral interview with specific questions about Sam. - Suggestions group not told anything about Sam. Get 4 suggestive interviews. Get neutral interview with specific questions about Sam. - Stereotype + suggestion group told Sam is nice but clumsyAND get 4 suggestive interviews. Get neutral interview with specific questions about Sam. Effects of stereotypes and suggestions on memory - Errors because kids can easily picture things that did not happen, but rather were suggested Problem solving - Developmental Trends in Solving Problems - Features of Children’s andAdolescents’Problem Solving - Scientific Problem Solving Developmental trends in problem solving - Children tend to become more effective problem solvers as they age - First problem solving strategy is trial and error - Research shows that even young c
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