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Lecture 14

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PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

Lecture 14 Thursday, February 17, 2011 - Ch. 11- Motives o Theories of motives o Discussion of personality - Ch. 12- Cognitive experiential domain - One of the ways we might assess needs - Look at this stimulus, describe what’s going on o Boy on a time out o Boy was left behind- defensive and mad o Maybe Great Depression - What is going on here? o Woman could be upset that he’s dying o Or woman could be upset that he’s cheating on her o Maybe she killed him and feels remorse o Or he’s passed out drunk and she’s upset - Very ambiguous photos—there’s no story but provides us with opportunity to put a story to the picture o We could never do this with a client with just one or two pictures o Need many o **Thematic Apperception Technique  Like Rorshach inkblots  There’s nothing really there, it’s about your interpretation  Client projects ideas, emotions, thoughts, NEEDS onto stimuli  Ties with idea that we have motivated unconscious (can project unconscious thoughts)  Not only do we project unconscious needs, but also conscious needs  Give a whole series, then look for themes in the stories (abandonment, anger, etc.)  One or two might be mroe about the photo—but look at a span of many and see the themes of the needs - Two big theories of needs - Henry Murray’s Theory of Needs o Hierarchy of needs o We have needs—for these needs, we all have a variety and essentially the same but we vary on the strength o His big three: achievement, power, intimacy o But we can vary in our level of these needs o We can be particularly low on one (to almost zero level) o Hierarchy—we can talk about most predominant need, weakest need, etc. o The order of that hierarchy is specific to the individual o Satisfying: the PROCESS of reducing tension (remember that needs and motives start with a deficit) o Satisfaction is not the need beign taken care of, but the PROCESS of reducing the need o Ex. Drinking water and reducing thirst. Not being already well hydrated. o These exist all the time, but can’t manifest all the time  Ex. Need for intimacy, when each of you is alone studying there is no opportunity to satisfy that need—don’t have opportunity to manifest the need—should measure in other times  Need- readiness to respond in certain way in certain circumstances o These individual differences influence the way we perceive our environment  TAT- looking at the same picture, but telling different stories  Watching same movie, but focusing on the elements that go with your needs - The Big Three Motives (Needs) o Achievement o Power o Intimacy o **Textbook explains well - Press: need-relevant aspects of the environment o Alpha press- objective environment (the picture you actually watch) o Beta press- perceived reality (subjective, aspects of the environment we attend to/seek out, based on our needs)  Ex. Office picnic, good day, barbecue with salads, kids playing. Everyone from the office is there, all milling about, joking, eating, etc. We are all in the same objective reality, but we pay attention to different aspects of the environment (beta press). Let’s say we all differ in our need for power—this will influence what we see in the beta press. Low need for power—don’t care, just hang out. High need for power—very conscious of the status of different individuals, will recognize the different power levels, will want to sit next to the boss. - Humanistic tradition: the motive to self-actualize o Humanism: more of a philosophical approach to thinking about the world, was adopted by psychology o In the perspective of psychology, humanism is essentially focusing on the personal worth of the individual—it’s a reaction to Freudian tradition and behavioural approach (humans as mindless robots—subject to drives of the hostile, aggressive id/core elements of learning, learning behaviours because of reward and punishment) o Sense of consciousness, personal control and responsibility o Worth of the person, putting good at the centre of our self o Focusing on our tendency to grow, to want to become the best we can be o *Personal worth, centrality of universal human rights o We have choice, personal responsibility o Core of our human nature is positive—life-affirming as opposed to self- destructive o Focus on growth, not deficiency o Its offshoot—positive psychology movement—when things go right, what contributes to happiness and positive functioning o Zalinsky- the Happy Lab (CUHL- Carleton University Happiness Lab) o That stems from this humanistic tradition - Maslow’s Contributions o Huge name in the field of motive psychology o Original theory of hierarchy of needs o For Henry Murray, hierarchy was individual to the self o For Maslow, it’s the same order of needs for everyone o Lower needs emerge first in the process of development o Each successive higher need manifests later in development o Lower needs are strongest needs - Hierarchy o Physiological needs  Lower needs are the strongest needs  Food, water, air—basic things our body needs to survive  Emerge first in lifetime  Meet these needs to get to next step o Safety needs  Shelter and security  Need not to be in danger, safe place to sleep  Not as strong as physiological needs, but still strong  Ex. Mouse is safe in his hole, but has no food or drink—he will put his life in danger and leave his mouse hole to get some food and water. Once those needs are met, he will return to his mouse hole to be self again. o Belongingness  Need to be part of a social group  We are social creatures—adaptation for survival  Ability to socialize, engage in coordinated activity  Also functional for reproductive success  This is stronger than esteem (next one) o Esteem  The way we feel about ourselves  **Belongingness comes before esteem because esteem is in part derived from the groups to which we belong o Self-actualization  The need to become our full self  Grow, flourish, become the most we can be  This need is the last to emerge—ex. Say you’re locked in the lecture room overnight—the first thing you’d want to do is address physiological needs (find a bathroom), not achieve the fullness of your being.  We could easily drop down to lowest level—they could override everything else - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Robot needs o Physical needs  Eat robot food o Safety needs  Update antivirus software o Belongingness  Vacuum living room o Self-esteem  Become self-aware o Self-actualization  Destroy humans - Maslow’s contributions o Carl Rogers—big fan of self-actualization o When things are going right, we are motivated to grow o What is your full potential? o You never get there—you are always growing towards it o You can always tell one more joke, plant one more flower, read one more story to a child o You always have the potential to grow more o Carl Rogers calls someone who’s working towards self-actualization a fully-functioning person o Vast majority of us don’t necessarily exist at that highest level—we might be at belongingness (finding our group that makes us feel comfortable and at home), esteem (trying to find out who we are, feel better about ourselves), but we might be working at self-actualization o Characteristics (Rogers)  Open to experience (to some extent, it’s close to Big Five—but he means that we’re open to experience the world, we have accurate
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