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PSYC 2600 (183)
Chris Motz (27)
Lecture 20

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PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

Lecture 20 Thursday, March 24, 2011 - Finish social-cultural domain - Ch. 18—personality and health - we left off at Cahill’s research - Gender differences between males and females not necessarily driven by biology but maybe caused by environment - Trying to put the pieces together, different lines o One line: take a bunch of babies, assess on different characteristics (body mass, reflexes, etc.)—no meaningful differences from birth o Another: unidentified baby, let participants guess the gender—50/50 split, at chance o Once we apply the label, we see differences in the way we treat the baby  College students view video—half are told it’s male, half are told it’s female—give different reasons for crying (male: angry, female: frightened)  Families of newborn infants treat them differently (female: cuddle, male: rough housing) - Bow: delicate, frightened; baseball cap: hardy, angry - Gender and the Social Environment o Gender, socialization, and money o When we teach children about financial responsibility and independence, do we teach the same? o Newcomb and Rabow o Sons more than daughters perceived and evaluated their parents as expecting them to know how to work and to save o Sons were introduced to discussions of family finances at younger age, reported that they currently work more than do women, received less family support than women o We treat them differently o But not all cultures handle this process in the same way - Gender, socialization, and money across cultures o What we’ve discussed so far is true for Caucasian family o **Filipino: financial practices managed by the mothers of the family  Would use this responsibility to introduce their daughters to financial knowledge and independence, earlier than son o **Latino: very egalitarian, treated the boys and girls similarly, introduced to financial responsibility and discussions around same age o Process of socialization may not be the same across all cultures - Ch. 17: culture and personality o It’s like what memory is to individuals  History of what’s happened to us, what’s important/meaningful is held on to long-term memory o Cultures are huge, multi-faceted systems—incredible number of different ways that cultures can vary (like personalities) o Cultural research is relatively young, but one dimension has received the most attention (collectivism/individualism)  Allows us to talk about culture, personality, and ways that culture has shaped differences in personality - Culture won’t all be polar opposites, but we can talk about them along continuum - Individualist Cultures o Emphasis is on personal goals o Still part of that group, but the emphasis is on our self o Behaviour is shaped on attitudes rather than the norms o Self is viewed as autonomous, independent o Attributes that are unique to the self - Collectivist Cultures o More of a focus on the group o We think of the self less as the independent me, more of a we (interdependent) o Think more about our connection to the group—how our behaviour will impact the group o Doesn’t mean we should abandon any sense of self, but more the self in connection to the group o (Family, tribe, etc.)—relational statements - we can think of culture as the structure of people within the culture o Vertical (top and bottom) o Horizontal (egalitarian) - 4 different possible o Vertical individualist, vertical collectivist, horizontal individualist, horizontal collectivist - Vertical collectivist o Still define the self in terms of the group, values of group will shape behaviour o But vertical organization—someone will be the leader, others will be a range along that ladder o We are willing to sacrifice for the gorup, submit to authority o Ex. India - Horizontal collectivist o All in this together o Anyone could take control at any time (for a particular situation) o Empathy, sociability, cooperation - Vertical individualist o NORTH AMERICA o Hierarchy, emphasis on the self - Horizontal individualist o Self as independent, but instead of climbing up the ladder, the hierarchy is de-emphasized - Culture vs. person o Individualism and collectivism are cultural units of analysis—illustrate one dimension of cultural differences that relates to differences in personality across cultures o What about variation within the culture? - People within culture: idiocentric or allocentric o Personality-level variable o They match very nicely with individualist (idiocentric)/collectivist (allocentric) - regardless of whether culture is individualistic or collectivistic, can find idiocentrics and allocentrics within any culture o Within our Canadian individualist culture, we’ll find that some of us are idiocentric and some are allocentric o All of us are a blend of the two o They are not correlated—orthogonal—so we can find any possible combination of the two o Those of us who are strong on idiocentrism and weak on allocentrism have a good fit between ourselves and our culture o Those of us who are more allocentric have more of a strain - Idiocentrism o Self-reliance, competition, uniqueness, hedonism, emotional distance from in-groups o There are more idiocentrics in individualist cultures - Allocentrism o Family integrity, interdependence, sociability o Family unit often turns out to be one of the most important—define ourselves a bit more in terms of our family group o Behaviour shaped more by needs of in-group members o More allocentrics in collectivistic cultures - Individualist and collectivist are like two completely different things o All of us as individuals are a mix of the two, but just vary in our levels— in any culture o All that varies is the relative balance - Cultural differences in self-concept o Social-cultural domain is in external factors, we’re connecting those to the self-concept** o Research by Markus and Kitayama, on how self-concept varies across cultures o When defining our sense of self, we have two fundamental cultural tasks  1) Communio
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