PSYC 2600 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Open Data Protocol, Critical Role, Inter-Rater Reliability

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Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design
Sources of personality data
o Self-Report Data (S-Data)
o Observer-Report Data (O-Data)
o Test-Data (T-Data)
o Life-Outcome Data (L-Data)
Self-report data (S-data)
o Most widely used source
Easy to use, fast
o Can be open ended or close enede
o Person provides information about him/herself, such as through a survey or interview
o Most commonly used in personality assessment.
o Most common form is questionnaire
o Format:
Unstructed itens- open ended
Difficult to generalize and draw comclusions
Structured items response options provided
E.g. yes/ no, true/false, likert rating scale
More common
Twenty statements test
o Instructions. Please complete the statement below 20 times. There are no right or
wrong answers. Please write the first things that come to mind, and try not to censor
yourself.
o “I am……………………………………………………………………………….”
o Many people focus on physical descriptions
o Then comes social roles
o Then personality traits
E.g. funn, extraverted
o Then existential concepts
I am and human being
Experience sampling
o At predetermined points in time beep to ask set of questions
o Palm pilots, iphones
Daily diary design
o Data are collected on a daily basis about events, such as physical symptoms, emotional
and self esteem
o Personality researcher often collect personality data either before or after the daily
diary phase
o Critical role of the participant in making persaonlity research work
o Costly and time consuming
Pros and cons
o Advantages and Disadvantages of S-Data
o Advanatges
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Access to thoughts, feelings, intention
Simle and easy
Definitional truth
They know themselves
o Disadvantages
May not respond honeslty (e.g. social desirability bias)
Lack of self awareness
Potential overuse
Researchers rely too much on them
Observer-report data (O-data)
o Trying to compensate for disadvantges in self report data
o Information provided by someone else about another person
o Key features of O-data
Provide access to information not attainable through other sources
Multiple observers can be used to assess a person
o Correlate observed traits with self reports
O-data
o Selecting observers:
1) Professional personality assessors
Trained in personality assessment and observation
2) People who actually know the target person
better position to observe targets natural behaviors
Allows for assessment of multiple social personalities
o Naturalistic observation
Pro: realistic context
Con: not able to control events witnessed
In the natural environemt, researcher has no control
o Artificial observation
Pro: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behavior
Con: lacks realism
Takes place in the lab usually through a one way mirror
Example of observational research
o Gottman and Levenson
Predictors of relationship failures and successes
The 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Research couple dynamic
Look at the non verbal aspects of couples who stay together and those who
break up
Pros and cons
o Advantages:
Multiple sources of information (inter-rater reliability)
Provide access to information not attainable through other sources
o Disadvantages:
Lack access to private experiences
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Document Summary

Please write the first things that come to mind, and try not to censor yourself: i am . , many people focus on physical descriptions, then comes social roles, then personality traits, e. g. funn, extraverted, then existential concepts. Lack of self awareness: researchers rely too much on them, observer-report data (o-data, trying to compensate for disadvantges in self report data. Look at the non verbal aspects of couples who stay together and those who break up: pros and cons. Advantages: multiple sources of information (inter-rater reliability, provide access to information not attainable through other sources, disadvantages: Lack access to private experiences: their thoughts thei emotions, only see that one observed time, bias, our perseptions change what we see, error, we make mistakes, test data (t-data) Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations: situtions designed to elisit behaviours. If 2 people are observing the same situation at one point of time their observations should correlate: applies to observational data.

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