Disposition domain-1 of 6 major domains in personality research. Focuses on ‘how many traits are
there’ ‘how are they organized’
Trait: Does a trait explain our behaviour? Desires, wants, needs (ambitious-need for achievement
wants status; rebellious-needs autonomy, wants to express themselves.
Does a trait only describe? (ambitious, set high goals, excited over achievement; rebellious-disobeyed
the law, dressed in unconventional way
Categorical vs distribution: Shy vs outgoing, very separate therefore no inbetween, cut off scores.
Also many possible levels of scores, normal distribution.
With over 20, 000 traits to choose from how do we choose which are important? We reference
politics, literature, movies and games a lot, they set out most popular traits.
Traits which set people apart. Interest in others (friendly vs conformity); ability to function
(psychosis, neurosis, intelligence)
Lexical approach- All important differences are encoded within natural language (new words get
invented to explain differences). The important of a trait is determined by: How often used, synonym
frequency, if they are across many sutures. Good for identifying traits, poor for understanding
hierarchy of traits, only exact words, not phrases.
Statistical Approach-Determines statistical power at each trait; words or phrases can be used; tells
us how many items correlate with each other. You cluster them together to figure out which go
together, makes it easier if grouped and categorized. You can’t start this from scratch, you need to do
lexical approach and then focus-group.
Determines which variables are important. A reason already exists to believe that individual
difference is important (family-oriented lifestyles vs bachelorhood) (Undergrad students=study
orientated-focus on classes, learning, achieving; peer group orientated-making friends, developing
relationships, new experiences)
Building a taronomy-Start with theoretical approach, then lexical, then statistical approach
Eysenck’s Theory Of Personality
3 main traits which are biologically driven and heritable. Lower ‘facets’ correlated with each other,
correspond to higher factor. 3 are: Extraversion (sociable, lively, assertive/carefree, dominant,
venturesome); Neuroticism (anxious, depressed, tense, low self-esteem/irrational, shy, moody,
emotional); Psychoticism (Aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal/antisocial, un-empathetic,
Esynecks theory influences modern social development theories and studies. Psychoticism
(externalizing and aggression, acting out); Neuroticism (Internalizing and shyness, acting in);
Extraversion (assertiveness and prosocial, acting with others). Shyness and sociability, shyness is
Low Approach High Approach
Low Avoidance Unsociable Social
High Avoidance Avoidant Shy
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:
Extraversion-Introversion (E/I)-Draws energy from outside/inside world
Sensing-Intuition (S/N)-Takes information through 5 senses/takes info through 6 sense
Thinking-Feeling (T/F)-Prefers logic and organization/prefers relationships and values
Judging-Perceiving (J/P)- Prefers order and control/prefers sponta