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Carleton University
PSYC 2600
Kathleen Hughes

 Disposition domain-1 of 6 major domains in personality research. Focuses on ‘how many traits are there’ ‘how are they organized’  Trait: Does a trait explain our behaviour? Desires, wants, needs (ambitious-need for achievement wants status; rebellious-needs autonomy, wants to express themselves.  Does a trait only describe? (ambitious, set high goals, excited over achievement; rebellious-disobeyed the law, dressed in unconventional way  Categorical vs distribution: Shy vs outgoing, very separate therefore no inbetween, cut off scores. Also many possible levels of scores, normal distribution.  With over 20, 000 traits to choose from how do we choose which are important? We reference politics, literature, movies and games a lot, they set out most popular traits.  Traits which set people apart. Interest in others (friendly vs conformity); ability to function (psychosis, neurosis, intelligence) Selecting Traits  Lexical approach- All important differences are encoded within natural language (new words get invented to explain differences). The important of a trait is determined by: How often used, synonym frequency, if they are across many sutures. Good for identifying traits, poor for understanding hierarchy of traits, only exact words, not phrases.  Statistical Approach-Determines statistical power at each trait; words or phrases can be used; tells us how many items correlate with each other. You cluster them together to figure out which go together, makes it easier if grouped and categorized. You can’t start this from scratch, you need to do lexical approach and then focus-group. Theoretical Approach  Determines which variables are important. A reason already exists to believe that individual difference is important (family-oriented lifestyles vs bachelorhood) (Undergrad students=study orientated-focus on classes, learning, achieving; peer group orientated-making friends, developing relationships, new experiences)  Building a taronomy-Start with theoretical approach, then lexical, then statistical approach Eysenck’s Theory Of Personality  3 main traits which are biologically driven and heritable. Lower ‘facets’ correlated with each other, correspond to higher factor. 3 are: Extraversion (sociable, lively, assertive/carefree, dominant, venturesome); Neuroticism (anxious, depressed, tense, low self-esteem/irrational, shy, moody, emotional); Psychoticism (Aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal/antisocial, un-empathetic, creative, tough-minded)  Esynecks theory influences modern social development theories and studies. Psychoticism (externalizing and aggression, acting out); Neuroticism (Internalizing and shyness, acting in); Extraversion (assertiveness and prosocial, acting with others). Shyness and sociability, shyness is not introverted. Low Approach High Approach Low Avoidance Unsociable Social High Avoidance Avoidant Shy Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:  Extraversion-Introversion (E/I)-Draws energy from outside/inside world  Sensing-Intuition (S/N)-Takes information through 5 senses/takes info through 6 sense  Thinking-Feeling (T/F)-Prefers logic and organization/prefers relationships and values  Judging-Perceiving (J/P)- Prefers order and control/prefers sponta
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