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Carleton University
PSYC 2600
Kathleen Hughes

Earliest Memories  Think about who you where, were you adventurous toddler? troublemaker teen? Do you feel as if you were the same person or a completely different person at each stage.  How do these selves reflect who you are today (are you the same or did you change)  Personal changes (bold vs shy), obedient vs rebellious (good but then can turn bad)  Personal stability, even if you changed fro rebellious, you can typically see some stability such as they were always creative. Personality Development/Change  Researches prefer to study stability, researchers are biased and favour stability. Stability has positive connotation, people who are in social sciences or psychology like consistency, inconsistency has a negative connotation. They really only look at the one side of it, stability suggests true and strong constructs When there is personality change it can happen at 3 levels:  Population Level-growth and change for everyone overtime (less aggressive and impulsive over time)  Group Differences-How personality changes within certain groups (gender-dominance, relationships, values in relationships changes with gender and age); culture (self-esteem changes significantly over time, autonomy-making own life decisions, value autonomy more, autonomy doesn't get as big of a boost when you stay at home longer)  Individual differences-Based on traits and attributes we can tell who will change more than others and what personality traits predict life events (such as introverts vs extroverts rather than gender)  3 concepts: change that is really stability (looks like change but it isn't really):  Rank Order Stability-Keeping your trait relative to others (it may seem like personality is changing drastically, according to rank order stability it isn't change if it is compared to others, if always above average, it doesn't matter if it actually changed)  Mean Stability- Individuals can change and rank order can change, but the average across population remains the same. Some will increase and some will decrease in any given trait, because these can cancel themselves out the mean average will stay the same. (some people will get families and party less, and others may come out of their shell and start to party more)  Coherence-The trait can stay stable (it just looks different at different ages), manifestation of a trait changes over time. (people can be rebellious through different ages, spill juice, then skateboarding and getting in trouble with law, then just staying out too late). What will people be impulsive about (something that you have a hard time holding back on), behaviours change, manifestations of personality change but the personality trait remains the same.  Personality stability is more stable over shorter periods of time because longer periods of time have more changes, there are a lot of changes more when we are younger vs when we are older.  Personality Change-Sometimes what we think has changed due to personality isn't because of personality but because of an illness or drug (paranoia, affect, can change mood and how you interact with others, emotional regulation, and attention to detail). In psychology we tend to look at dramatic unique cases of change (brain damage, illness and emotional trauma- but it is rare). Typical changes and growth over time (infancy to childhood, childhood to adolescence, adolescence to emerging adulthood, emerging adulthood to middle adulthood, middle adulthood to elderhood) Personality in Infancy  Difficult to measure, we look at temperament which is highly related to personality, and it is biologically based, and they emerge early in infancy. Nine dimensions of temperament (similar to taxonomies of personality, more commonly agreed upon) 1. Activity-how active the infant is, are they constantly moving or are they slow, kicking in womb vs slow turns, hyper vs relaxed. 2. Regularity/rhythmicity: predictable routines (eating, sleeping), if they are stuck to a schedule or if they are unpredictable 3. Adaptability-How much they will adjust to change (blanket, who wakes them up after nap time, some are stubborn and some are easy going) 4. Approach and withdrawal-bold vs shyness, someone new who wants to hold the baby, will they act well or will they act strongly towards it, sometimes new people are okay but new situations are not 5. affect/mood-If you are happy or sad, really smiling or really fussing 6. Emotionality/Intensity/Reactivity. a strong reaction vs a weak reaction (how strong it is) 7. Attention/distractibility-the ability to hold their attention on one task, not always a good thing (very keen to walking over and taking the very dangerous item, if distractible its great, if they are stubborn they will not stop persisting) 8. Persistence-How long they will try the task before they give up. 9. Sentivity-How sensitive to stimuli are they (do bright lights hurt them a lot, can they fall asleep anywhere or will the sounds of the floor boards wakes them up) Dimensions of Temperament  9 dimensions vs 3 types- Easy (sucker baby), difficult (over sensitive, unpredictable, dont adjust to change), slow to warm up (not difficult but slower to adapt and slower to approach) Self-fulfilling prophecy (if you treat them difficult they will believe it and it will affect how they develop)  Temperament-very stable over the first year, and becomes more stable when they mature and is most stable when we measure over a shorter period of time. Personality in childhood  When younger not too many traits, when they are kids, new traits start to emerge-big five factors, self- esteem starts to emerge. Childhood personality at age 3 can predict personality at age 6. Stability across time (activity levels, climbing trees vs reading books, actometer (teacher observations, found that kids that were active at 3 were still active at 7), shorter term is again more stable, less reliable over longer term.  Educational transitions (is when a lot of things change, four that change a lot when school starts. Shyness (some are shy before but then overcome it, but then some get even more shy), self-esteem (declines with social comparison), impulse control (learn to control behaviours more), conscientiousness (learn to focus and consider tasks, create and achieve more goals)  Once we are in school how we behave and achieve in school is based off of personality, could be based off of emotional stability, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness), openness (those who can share with others tend to achieve more), conscientiousness (more conscientious tend to achieve more, it is the strongest predictor, those who are going for the goal, detail oriented and organized, high conscientiousness at 8-12 predicts achievements 2 decades later  Predictive of late behaviour (shyness for adults-makes everything happen later in life-marriage, work, family etc) (for children- how many friends etc) Personality in Adolescence  Most changeable time in our lives-hormones are raging and fluctuate, new social groups and identity construction, new autonomy and independence The big five factors in adolescence  Emotional stability (decreased, hormonal fluctuations, most changeable); extraversion (increased-more social interactions); agreeableness (decreased-more defiance, we are not modest); conscientiousness (slight decrease in some studies, more mi
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