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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 chapter 5 part 2.docx

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PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

Lecture 6 Chapter 5: STS continued Amnesics - Amnesics can “learn” • Only certain types of things though • Shook hands with a little prick (tiny needle), next day, went to shake hands, and person would take hand back before handshake - Serial position curve revisited - Bjork and Whitten (1974) • Task:  10 pairs of words  20 seconds delay at end of list with distracter task  Cued recall  Present 1 word and generate the other one (from a pair) • Results:  Strong recency effects even with distracter! • Suggests:  Recency effects may reflect more than just retrieval from STS?  Maybe it has made it into LTS, but not very strongly STS codes - Kroll et al (1970) • Evidence for visual coding in STS • Task:  Shadowing (repeat word for word) + test letter (ex: H) (either aud/vis)  Retention interval 1 to 15 seconds  Recall test letter • Results:  Short interval recall 96%, aud = vis  Long interval: recall vis > aud  Independent variable visual or auditory  Independent variable short or long interval - Shulman (1971) • Evidence for semantic code in STS • Task:  List of 10 words (500ms each)  Probe: does it match item for list?  Probe type: related vs unrelated (e.x: boat/ship) • Results: false positive when related  Ex: item on list is boat, and probe is ship, they would say “yes, ship was on the list” • Suggests: items can be coded semantically in STS (not justAVL) Summary - Original STS/LTS distinction based on: - Amnesic data transfer from STS to LTS requires rehearsal cycles - Serial position curve Recency can occur in different memory tasks - Code Not justAVL, can use other codes in STS - Duration not questioning this (lasts about 15-20 seconds) Working memory - Baddeley (1985) • STM:  Initially viewed as a storage system  However, believed to be important for active processing of information  Needed new concept • WM (working memory):  Active system for the temporary storage and manipulation of information - Components of WM • If the CE is not good for whatever reason, you will have a hard time setting priorities and time-sharing • Part of the memory that is involved when you are planning things (CE) • As you age, the CE can become compromised - Eg: 55 X 5 • Central Executive:  Retrieves rules of computation  Initiates retrieval of facts (5 X 5 = 25)  Activates phonological loop to temporarily store product (“25”)  Etc - General assumptions of WM: • WM operates on many tasks (math, reading, driving) • WM limited in storage capacity • Limited in how much you can process Demands of task #1 can limit the performance on task #2 - Assumptions regarding the two subsystems (called slave systems) • Involve simple low-level processing  Rehearsal and maintenance of information • Subsystems are domain specific  Phonological is separate from the visuo-spatial • Each subsystem has own limited (small) pool of attentional resources  May also drain (rely on) resources from the C.E. Evidence for independence of phonological loop vs. visuo-spatial sketch pad - Logie, Zucco and Baddeley (1990) - Primary tasks • Visual memory span  Grid of squares on display  ½ (random) filled in  3 seconds presentation, blank display, new displa
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