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PSYC 3402A - Lecture 1 - Sept. 6, 2013.docx

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PSYC 3402
Ralph Serin

Friday, September 6, 2013 PSYC 3402A – Criminal Behaviour Fall 2013 Lecture 1 Instructor Dr. Ralph Serin • Office: B548 Loeb Building • Phone: 613-520-2600 (ext. 1557) • Email: [email protected] Guest lecturer: Sept 20 WHO? • Some research focuses on sensational cases (outliers) • Paul Bernardo & Karla Homolko • Understanding criminal behaviour, however focuses on “regular” offenders WHY? • 3.1 million Canadians formally involved in criminal justice system • 8.3 million Canadians report being victims of crime annually • This represents about 1/3 of Canadians (+ family members of victims & perpetrators)! • This amount double if you include the family of victims/perpetrators • $4.08 billion budget (federal and provincial corrections only) • $13 billion for police, courts & corrections • $45 billion in victim costs (estimate) Conclusion: A significant concern to Canadians (after economy, health care) Office Hours • Friday 12-2 pm • Or by appointment Teaching Assistants Emad Talisman – [email protected] Holly Ellingwood – [email protected] • Answer questions on cuLearn, emails • Mark essay, exams Class Etiquette • Hours • Breaks (15 minutes in the middle) • Cell phones, texting • Suggestion/question envelope • Interim evaluation • Emails (prefer not cuLearn) CuLearn: • Course outline • Lecture material (Powerpoint overheads) • Learning materials (Key points) • Participation quizzes Required Text Serin, R.C., Forth, A.E., Brown, S.L., Nunes, K.L., Bennell, C., & Pozzulo, J.D. (2010). Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective. Pearson Publishing. ISBN-10: 0135053803, ISBN-13: 9780135053805 Recommended Websites (research and practice of sex offenders) (public safety) (substance abuse) Grades • Percentages to letter grades – Typically 25% get an A- or better • Posted on cuLearn (midterm) • Carleton Central (final) • Your responsibility to check Midterm Exam th • October 18 , in class • M/C & short answer • 30% of total mark th th • Classes from September 6 to October 4 inclusive Assignment November 8 th Value: 20% The assignment is worth 20% and comprises of a maximum 1000 word (4 pages, double-spaced, 12 point font), plus title page and bibliography. The specific topic is: Debate continues regarding whether sanctions or punishment reduces criminal behaviour. Provide examples of sanctions in use in Canada and from an empirical perspective, comment on their effectiveness as strategies for influencing offender change and recidivism reduction. Conclude with a recommendation and rationale regarding policy in Canada. Electronic copies are to be submitted on cuLearn before 5:30pm. On-Line Chapter Quizzes • Reflects 4 chapters not covered in class (5, 6, 8 & 12) – 10 multiple choice each • Open book • Take best mark • 5% of total mark • Must be completed by midnight November 25 th(university policy) Participation Quizzes • 10 quizzes will be created and placed on WebCT. Each is worth ½ percentage. NOTE: Your answer is NOT graded, only participation. These are intended to help as a study guide!! • Quizzes will be on WebCT until midnight, the day prior to the final exam. • Maximum participation = 5% Final Exam • Date Set by FASS • M/C, short answer, short essay • Covers all classes (cumulative) • Review in last class • 40% of total mark Missed Midterm Exam • Notify TA ASAP (24 hours) • Two conditions: illness & bereavement • Documentation is required NOTE: Only 2 alternative re-write options will be provided. Missed Final Exam • Contact Registrar • Documentation is required Lecture Content & Style • Not just from the text • Emphasis on research findings, critical evaluation, & application • Lecture slides will be put on cuLearn prior to class • Lecture summaries questions will be put on cuLearn after class What influences how we consider criminal behaviour? - Social norms - Media - Politics - SES - Costs - Stakeholders - Personal experience - Research? o Least useful according to opinion surveys Class Objectives • Describe a typical offender & implications • Discuss predictors of criminal behaviour • Describe crime trends throughout Canada • Describe public perceptions of criminal justice • Describe the impact of crime on Canadians • Serial killers & rapists are not the norm • Sex offenders comprise 10 - 25% of all federal offenders, with lower failure rates (< 15% treated or not) BUT are a preoccupation in the media and public • Understanding criminal behaviour (theory & practice) must be wary of outliers Warning • Much of the course deals with statistics, correlations, and empirical support for specific approaches • Nonetheless, understanding criminal behaviour (& corrections) is about people Current Context • Psychology’s focus on intra-individual and inter-individual differences (not social explanations) • Consideration of factors that might influence criminal behaviour • Personal, Interpersonal and Community-Reinforcement model (PIC-R) – interplay of various factors • Social learning model of criminal behaviour • Compilation of crim/psych theories Definition of Crime • Crime is socially constructed • Variety of definitions: include legal, moral, social, psychological explanations • Should consider changing understanding of acceptable norms in society (e.g. abortion, legal marijuana use) Working Definition of Criminal Behaviour • “Criminal behaviour refers to intentional behaviour that violates a criminal code; intentional in that it did not occur accidentally or without justification or excuse” (Bartol and Bartol, 2008) • Definition used in course (midterm) Determinants of Crime • Distal (historical) (upbringing, family background) • Proximal (immediate, situational) (current parenting models) • Identification of factors that are most strongly associated with criminal behaviour: use of meta-analysis First and Second Order Correlates of Criminal Conduct • Andrews et al: Central Eight risk/need factors with embedded Big Four (major causal variables) - > 1000 studies; > 1770 Pearson r’s • Minor, moderate and major risk factors • Static and dynamic risk factors • Assessment & treatment must attend to risk/need factors Table 1.2. Summary of correlations among risk factors and criminal conduct. (Source: Andrews & Bonta, 2007) Risk Factor Pearson No. of correl. Correlations coefficients Lower-Class Origins 0.06 97 Personal Distress/ Psychopathology 0.08 226 Personal Education/ Vocational Achievement 0.12 129 Parental/Family Factors 0.18 334 Temperament/Personality 0.21 621 Antisocial Attitudes/Associates 0.22 168 “Central Eight” and “Big Four” Risk/Need Factors Type Factor Type The “Central Eight” History of antisocial behaviour The “Big Four” Risk Factors Risk Factors Antisocial personality pattern Antisocial cognition Antisocial associates Family and/or marital School and/or work Leisure and/or recreation Substance abuse Type Factor Risk History of antisocial behaviourEarly and continuing involvement in a number and variety of antisocial acts in a variety of settin gs Antisocial personality pattern Adventurous pleasure seeking, we-control, restlessly aggressive Antisocial cognition Attitudes, values, beliefs, and rationalizations supportive of crime; cognitive
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