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Lecture 2

PSYC 3403 Lecture 2: Addictions class 2

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Carleton University
PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

Uy7Addictions Class 2 January 18, 2016 4 dominant perspectives 1) Moral model 2) Biological model 3) Sociological model 4) Cognitive, social psychological Moral Model - Beliefs or judgement about what’s right or wrong, or acceptable and unacceptable behaviour - Judgement about people who use drugs - Something morally wrong with users - Substance abuse seen as a crime, Canada’s crime act has 4 main tactics, prevention, supply reduction, demand reduction, harm reduction Treatment - Would suggest that bad people should be punished - This doesn’t focus on treating, helping, or preventing - Assumes that everyone who abuses drugs is a bad person Criticisms: - Offers no real hep to the person - No developed theoretical perspective - Punitive not humanistic - No evidence that punishment reduces or eliminates problematic use - Driven up the US prison population over the past 2 decades - Objectionable, it’s not a way to address a public health problem - Lack of evidence or effectiveness Biological Model - Biological or physiologically based abnormality that causes them to become addicted (some people “Can’t stop”) - Genetics predisposition, inherited vulnerability or genetic factors - Rates of metabolization (light weight vs heavy weight) - Unusual or unique brain functioning and brain wave patterns and activity - Sometimes referred to as the disease model - Something physically wrong with the person - Origins are physical and beyond the control of the person - People are sick or ill not sinful or bad - It is not a choice it is a need - Much like a cold, or the flu, you don’t choose to develop an addiction - SOME evidence of an inherited predisposition - Person could become more easily and quickly addicted than others - Biological abnormality fuels person’s drive to use drugs - Long term use leads to damage to brain centers for willpower and judgement - Neurotoxic= poison to your brain (Methamphetamine) - If you use meth a lot you start reducing the number of your neurons, you burn through them really fast - Incurable, can’t just decide to quit one day and all your problems will go away - Popular with diverse populations - Strong intuitive appeal to people who suffer Treatment: - No cure - Remission achieved through abstinence - Reduced, controlled, moderated drinking not a safe or successful option - AA/NA, 12 step problem - Some places say you have to change your behaviour first before you can be treated (…dumb ideology) Criticisms: - “Disease model lacks comprehensive integrated theory and evidence- genetic research is very complex- many markers linked to abuse and addiction - Many aspects of substance abuse behaviour do not mirror a disease process - Family history research is minimal and inconsistent (twin research is really hard to do) - Genetic markers on contribute approx. 5% of cases - Ethnic groups that share hyper metabolism rates such as north American first nations and Chinese/Japanese- latter have amongst the lowest alcohol problems - Role of “epi-genetics” = genetics across generations - Doesn’t account for variations in behaviour
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