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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

9 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

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Lecture 10 Overview - Why do we eat? - Mechanisms behind food regulation - Physiological effects - Model of food addiction - Prevalence Why do we eat? - Factors that mediate food intake: • Homeostasis (energy demands) (body’s basic needs) • Emotional state (stress, boredom) • Hedonism (pleasure) Why do we eat? - Simple biological model - Body has humoral signals from body to hypothalamus that you are hungry, and initiate cascade of events to make you seek food - Many triggers, such as seeing friends eating and drinking Why do we eat? - Hunger-stimulating GI peptides • Ghrelin (stomach, pancreas)  Levels increase before food consumption  Levels are lower in obese individuals  Sleep can influence ghrelin levels  Activates a portion of the dopamine reward pathway - Adiposity signals- satiety signals • Hormones:  Leptin (adipose)  Off switch. Tells you that you have had enough  Insulin (pancreas)  Cholecystokinin (CCK) (small intestine) Why do we eat? - Mechanism of action for leptin at hypothalamus: • Antagonizing the effects of neuropeptide Y (stimulant) • Antagonizing the effects of anandamide • Promote synthesis of -MSH (appetite suppressant) - Mechanism of action for insulin: • Causes cells to take up glucose from blood • Stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon • When control of insulin levels fails, patients can develop diabetes mellitus Why do we eat? - Triggers that stimulate hunger are cyclical Why do we eat? - Hypothalamus- primary regulatory center for food intake and body weight • Mice were very obese • Helped in the discovery of leptin • Administration of leptin reversed the effect Dual-center hypothesis **KNOW THIS** - The hypothalamus has two distinct regions: • Ventromedial hypothalamus (deals with satiety, aka OFF switch) • Lateral hypothalamus (deals with hunger, aka ON switch) - Each region regulates the opposing action • Hunger vs. satiet
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