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Lecture 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3403
Professor
Tarry Ahuja
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 9 Overview - Pain (acute vs. chronic) - Opioids - Opioid receptors - Morphine Pain - Two classifications • Acute pain • Chronic pain - Acute pain: • Caused by soft tissue damage • Infection • Inflammation • Short term - Chronic pain: • Linked with long-term illness or disease • May have no apparent cause (no obvious wound) • Can trigger other issues • Difficult to assess and diagnose • Long term Pain - Nociception • Refers to the system that carries signals of damage and pain to the brain • Nociceptive neurons have cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia • Can detect mechanical, thermal (ex: hot water), and chemical (ex: acid) stimuli - Nociception transmission: • Bidirectional axons synapse in dorsal horn of the spinal cord • Signal continues to brain where its processed (signal crosses horn and up to brain) Opioids - Can modulate symptoms of pain - Mimics endogenous endorphins/enkephalins - Bind to opioid receptors - Opioid agonists Opioids (sources) **KNOW THIS!!** - Natural: • From the resin of poppy seeds • Morphine, codeine, thebaine - Semi-synthetic: • Created from natural opioids (but have been modified) • Heroin, oxycodone, hydromorphone - Fully synthetic: • Derived in a lab • Methadone, fentanyl Opioids - Derived from the resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum, “sleep-bringing poppy”) - Harvested primarily for medicinal purposes - There is a world-wide shortage - US buys 80% of its supply from India and Turkey Opioid receptors - Three types of receptors: • Mu ( µ ;µ 1,µ 2,µ 3) • Kappa (K; K , 1 , 2 ) 3 • Delta (;1, 2, 3 ) - Up to 17 types have been reported - Differential distribution in the brain Opioid receptors - Mu receptors are found in: • Thalamus • Striatum • Spinal cord • Periaquaductal gray • Brainstem nuclei - Has analgesic effects, alters respiration Opioid receptors - Kappa receptors are found in: • Basal ganglia • Nucleus accumbens • Hypothalamus • Periaquaductal gray • Deep cerebral cortex - May antagonize mu receptor activity - Modest analgesia, Dysphoria, little or no respiratory depression Opioid receptors - Delta receptors are found in: • Nucleus accumbens • Limbic system • Spinal cord - Lower addictive potential - Modulate the activity of mu receptors - Poor analgesics Opioid receptors (classification) - Pure agonists: • Strong binding to receptor • Ex: morphine (mu receptor) - Pure antagonists: • Strong binding to receptor with no activity • Ex: naltrexone (mu
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