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Lecture 2

SOCI 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Symbolic Interactionism, Emo, Labeling Theory


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1002
Professor
Christian Pasiak
Lecture
2

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Deviance: when someone departs from a norm and evokes a negative
reaction from others
Dressing/Cutting your hair a certain way ("emo")
®
Adultery
®
Lying
®
NOT against the law, but deviant
Symbolic interactionist perspective
§
Looking at the culture of and in your situation depends on if you find
something deviant
J-Walking
Smoking Marijuana
Gateway drug
}
Moralist crime
}
Marijuana
Why are these things still against the law?
®
Same-Sex Marriage/Couples
Against the law, but NOT deviant
§
Crime: deviance that is against the law
What is the difference between 'deviance' & 'crime'?
-
Introductory Discussion
Technologies: the government is behind when it comes to the law
§
Becomes regulated by government
®
Taxable/Tax Claims
®
Legalization
Take it out of the Criminal Code
®
Maybe fines (not criminal but fineable crime)
®
Decriminalization
Environmental laws: Laws aren't strict enough
§
A law is a norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies
Who decides what is considered 'deviant'? Who decides what should be a crime?
-
Involves a mild sanction that is imposed during face-to-face interaction,
not by an institution
§
E.g. raised eyebrows, gossip, ostracism, shaming or stigmatization
§
Informal Punishment
The judicial system punishing someone for breaking the law
University expelling you for plagiarizing
Takes place when an institution penalizes someone from breaking a
regulation
§
Formal Punishment
Clarifying the sociological usage of the term sanctions: penalties, sometimes
imposed by ways of discipline or punishment
-
Black men = dangerous, thugs, troublemakers, etc.
Labelling children as 'bad apples'
Disabilities = can't work
Depression = just be positive
Anxiety = calm down
Tattoos = criminal, troublemaker, army veteran, etc.
What are some examples of stigmatizations/stigmas?
§
When people are 'stigmatized', they are negatively evaluated becasuse of a
marker that distinguishes them from others
Stigma
-
"a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become
true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive
feedback between belief and behavior"
}
Aaron Cicourels 1968 study demonstrated police and judicial prejudice
in rate of applying discretionary powers to prosecute and target
adolescents from divorced families more frequently than adolescents
from intact families
§
Sociologists and criminologists collect data on adolescents charged with
crimes to study characteristics for patterns
§
Seeing an abundance of adolescents coming from divorced families
might lead to the conclusion that children from divorced families were
more likely to become juvenile delinquents
§
Labelling behavior as deviant and responding negatively (with sanctions, etc.)
can lead to a "self fulfilling prophecy"
Carding/Racial Profiling
§
Targeting neighborhoods
First Nations & Non-Whites in the prison systems
§
What are some potential contemporary applications of this relational insight?
Howard S. Beckers 1963 study of marijuana users illustrated the role of
learning (to produce effects, to recognize effects, to enjoy the perceived
sensations)
§
Participants in deviant or criminal behavior involved a learning process that
happens in a social context
Labelling theory holds that deviance does not inhere inn a person's actions but
depends on others' responses to those actions
-
Symbolic Interactionism Contributions
Condemn and punish the transgression
§
Remind them of their common values
§
Clarifying the moral boundaries of the group to which they belong
§
This, reinforce social solidarity
§
When someone breaks a rule, it gives others a chance to
Deviance and crime can help societies adapt to social change
Durkheim: "Deviance and crime are beneficial to society"
-
Functionalist Contributions
Accept institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = conformity
§
Accept institutionalized mean -negative cultural goals = ritualism
§
Reject institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = innovation
(crime)
§
Reject institutionalized means -negative cultural goals = retreatism
§
New institutionalized means -new cultural goals = rebellion
§
Robert Merton's "Strain Theory": a discrepancy between cultural ideals and
structural realities is dysfunctional and leads to strain, which increases a person’s
likelihood of becoming deviant
-
------------------------------------------------
Deviance & Crime
Monday,)January)18,)2016
2:41)PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Deviance: when someone departs from a norm and evokes a negative
reaction from others
Dressing/Cutting your hair a certain way ("emo")
®
Adultery
®
Lying
®
NOT against the law, but deviant
Symbolic interactionist perspective
§
Looking at the culture of and in your situation depends on if you find
something deviant
Speeding
J-Walking
Smoking Marijuana
Gateway drug
}
Moralist crime
}
Marijuana
Why are these things still against the law?
®
Same-Sex Marriage/Couples
Against the law, but NOT deviant
§
Crime: deviance that is against the law
What is the difference between 'deviance' & 'crime'?
-
Introductory Discussion
Technologies: the government is behind when it comes to the law
§
Becomes regulated by government
®
Taxable/Tax Claims
®
Legalization
Take it out of the Criminal Code
®
Maybe fines (not criminal but fineable crime)
®
Decriminalization
Environmental laws: Laws aren't strict enough
§
A law is a norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies
Who decides what is considered 'deviant'? Who decides what should be a crime?
-
Involves a mild sanction that is imposed during face-to-face interaction,
not by an institution
§
E.g. raised eyebrows, gossip, ostracism, shaming or stigmatization
§
Informal Punishment
The judicial system punishing someone for breaking the law
University expelling you for plagiarizing
Takes place when an institution penalizes someone from breaking a
regulation
§
Formal Punishment
Clarifying the sociological usage of the term sanctions: penalties, sometimes
imposed by ways of discipline or punishment
-
Black men = dangerous, thugs, troublemakers, etc.
Labelling children as 'bad apples'
Disabilities = can't work
Depression = just be positive
Anxiety = calm down
Tattoos = criminal, troublemaker, army veteran, etc.
What are some examples of stigmatizations/stigmas?
§
When people are 'stigmatized', they are negatively evaluated becasuse of a
marker that distinguishes them from others
Stigma
-
"a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become
true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive
feedback between belief and behavior"
}
Aaron Cicourels 1968 study demonstrated police and judicial prejudice
in rate of applying discretionary powers to prosecute and target
adolescents from divorced families more frequently than adolescents
from intact families
§
Sociologists and criminologists collect data on adolescents charged with
crimes to study characteristics for patterns
§
Seeing an abundance of adolescents coming from divorced families
might lead to the conclusion that children from divorced families were
more likely to become juvenile delinquents
§
Labelling behavior as deviant and responding negatively (with sanctions, etc.)
can lead to a "self fulfilling prophecy"
Carding/Racial Profiling
§
Targeting neighborhoods
First Nations & Non-Whites in the prison systems
§
What are some potential contemporary applications of this relational insight?
Howard S. Beckers 1963 study of marijuana users illustrated the role of
learning (to produce effects, to recognize effects, to enjoy the perceived
sensations)
§
Participants in deviant or criminal behavior involved a learning process that
happens in a social context
Labelling theory holds that deviance does not inhere inn a person's actions but
depends on others' responses to those actions
-
Symbolic Interactionism Contributions
Condemn and punish the transgression
§
Remind them of their common values
§
Clarifying the moral boundaries of the group to which they belong
§
This, reinforce social solidarity
§
When someone breaks a rule, it gives others a chance to
Deviance and crime can help societies adapt to social change
Durkheim: "Deviance and crime are beneficial to society"
-
Functionalist Contributions
Accept institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = conformity
§
Accept institutionalized mean -negative cultural goals = ritualism
§
Reject institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = innovation
(crime)
§
Reject institutionalized means -negative cultural goals = retreatism
§
New institutionalized means -new cultural goals = rebellion
§
Robert Merton's "Strain Theory": a discrepancy between cultural ideals and
structural realities is dysfunctional and leads to strain, which increases a person’s
likelihood of becoming deviant
-
------------------------------------------------
Deviance & Crime
Monday,)January)18,)2016 2:41)PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Deviance: when someone departs from a norm and evokes a negative
reaction from others
Dressing/Cutting your hair a certain way ("emo")
®
Adultery
®
Lying
®
NOT against the law, but deviant
Symbolic interactionist perspective
§
Looking at the culture of and in your situation depends on if you find
something deviant
Speeding
J-Walking
Smoking Marijuana
Gateway drug
}
Moralist crime
}
Marijuana
Why are these things still against the law?
®
Same-Sex Marriage/Couples
Against the law, but NOT deviant
§
Crime: deviance that is against the law
What is the difference between 'deviance' & 'crime'?
-
Introductory Discussion
Technologies: the government is behind when it comes to the law
§
Becomes regulated by government
®
Taxable/Tax Claims
®
Legalization
Take it out of the Criminal Code
®
Maybe fines (not criminal but fineable crime)
®
Decriminalization
Environmental laws: Laws aren't strict enough
§
A law is a norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies
Who decides what is considered 'deviant'? Who decides what should be a crime?
-
Involves a mild sanction that is imposed during face-to-face interaction,
not by an institution
§
E.g. raised eyebrows, gossip, ostracism, shaming or stigmatization
§
Informal Punishment
The judicial system punishing someone for breaking the law
University expelling you for plagiarizing
Takes place when an institution penalizes someone from breaking a
regulation
§
Formal Punishment
Clarifying the sociological usage of the term sanctions: penalties, sometimes
imposed by ways of discipline or punishment
-
Black men = dangerous, thugs, troublemakers, etc.
Labelling children as 'bad apples'
Disabilities = can't work
Depression = just be positive
Anxiety = calm down
Tattoos = criminal, troublemaker, army veteran, etc.
What are some examples of stigmatizations/stigmas?
§
When people are 'stigmatized', they are negatively evaluated becasuse of a
marker that distinguishes them from others
Stigma
-
"a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become
true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive
feedback between belief and behavior"
}
Aaron Cicourels 1968 study demonstrated police and judicial prejudice
in rate of applying discretionary powers to prosecute and target
adolescents from divorced families more frequently than adolescents
from intact families
§
Sociologists and criminologists collect data on adolescents charged with
crimes to study characteristics for patterns
§
Seeing an abundance of adolescents coming from divorced families
might lead to the conclusion that children from divorced families were
more likely to become juvenile delinquents
§
Labelling behavior as deviant and responding negatively (with sanctions, etc.)
can lead to a "self fulfilling prophecy"
Carding/Racial Profiling
§
Targeting neighborhoods
First Nations & Non-Whites in the prison systems
§
What are some potential contemporary applications of this relational insight?
Howard S. Beckers 1963 study of marijuana users illustrated the role of
learning (to produce effects, to recognize effects, to enjoy the perceived
sensations)
§
Participants in deviant or criminal behavior involved a learning process that
happens in a social context
Labelling theory holds that deviance does not inhere inn a person's actions but
depends on others' responses to those actions
-
Symbolic Interactionism Contributions
Condemn and punish the transgression
§
Remind them of their common values
§
Clarifying the moral boundaries of the group to which they belong
§
This, reinforce social solidarity
§
When someone breaks a rule, it gives others a chance to
Deviance and crime can help societies adapt to social change
Durkheim: "Deviance and crime are beneficial to society"
-
Functionalist Contributions
Accept institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = conformity
§
Accept institutionalized mean -negative cultural goals = ritualism
§
Reject institutionalized means -positive cultural goals = innovation
(crime)
§
Reject institutionalized means -negative cultural goals = retreatism
§
New institutionalized means -new cultural goals = rebellion
§
Robert Merton's "Strain Theory": a discrepancy between cultural ideals and
structural realities is dysfunctional and leads to strain, which increases a person’s
likelihood of becoming deviant
-
------------------------------------------------
Deviance & Crime
Monday,)January)18,)2016 2:41)PM
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