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Biology and Organism Classification

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Health Sciences

Biology Study of living things. Living things are: • Organized • Acquire materials and energy • Reproduce • Respond to stimuli • Are homeostatic • Grow and develop • Have the capacity to adapt to their environment Definition of life: • Most living things grow, move, reproduce, metabolize, and respond to external stimuli Def. #2: • All living things are made up of water, biological molecules (sugar, fats, proteins, nucleic acids), and maintain homeostasis Metabolism All chemical processes in cells that make energy, synthesize required substances, and excretion of waste Homeostasis Maintaining a steady internal environment Conditions for Life • Liquid water: contained or environmental • Elements for metabolism and reproduction: Organic compounds like sugars, fats, protein, and nucleic acids • A source of energy: sun for plants, or other organisms for the rest • Suitable environmental conditions: varies widely Organisms in • High temp. Extreme Conditions • Very cold temp. • No oxygen • Toxic chemicals • Very high pressure Organism 1. Domain Classification 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species Binomial • 1 word is the genus, describing similarity to other organisms, 2 word is the nomenclature species name, describing uniqueness • Bi = 2 • Nomial = names • Nomenclature = naming system th ^ Carl Linnaeus • Created ^ in 18 century, uses Latin Rules • Include both genus and species, written in italics • Genus has capital, species does not Domains (3) • Bacteria • Archaea • Eukarya Species • A group of organisms that can reproduce and produce viable offspring Closer Look Bacteria • Typically unicellular, prokaryotic cell structure • Comparatively small, abundant and adaptable • Live
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