GEOG 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Organic Fertilizer, Fish Migration, Crop Rotation

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7 Aug 2016
Chapter 14 – Food and Soil Resources
Industrialized agriculture/high-input agriculture- uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water,
commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops or livestock animals for sale
Plantation agriculture- is a form of industrialized agriculture primarily used in tropical
developing countries. It involves growing cash crops (such as bananas, coffee, soybeans, etc.) on
large monoculture plantations, mostly for sale in developed countries.
Traditional subsistence agriculture- typically uses mostly human labor and draft animals to
produce only enough crops or livestock for a farm family’s survival. This is a very low input
type which includes shifting cultivation and nomadic livestock herding.
Traditional intensive agriculture- farmers increase their inputs of human and draft labor,
fertilizer, and water to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land. They produce enough food
to feed their families and to sell for income.
Green evolution- a large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use
of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.
Soil erosion- the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one
place to another. The two main agents of erosion are flowing water and wind, with water causing
most soil erosion. People also cause erosion.
Desertification- the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought,
deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture.
Salinization- repeated annual applications of irrigation water lead to gradual accumulation of
salts in the upper soil layers. It stunts crop growth, lower crop yields, and eventually kills plants
and ruins the land
Waterlogging- refers to the saturation of soil with water. Soil may be regarded as waterlogged
when the water table of the groundwater is too high to conveniently permit an anticipated
activity, like agriculture. In agriculture, various crops need air (specifically, oxygen) to a greater
or lesser depth in the soil.
Soil conservation- involves using ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility.
Conservation-tillage farming- to disturb the soil as little as possible while planting crops
Terracing- can reduce soil erosion on steep slopes by converting the land into a series of broad,
nearly level terraces that run across the land contour. This retains water for crops at each level
and reduces soil erosion by controlling runoff
Contour farming- involves plowing and planting crops in rows across the slope of the land rather
than up and down. Each row acts as a small dam to help hold soil and to slow water runoff
Strip cropping- reduces soil erosion. It involves planting alternating strips of a row crop (such as
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