NRS 213 Lecture 1: wk1 objective ans.docx

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1 Mar 2015
Week 1 Objectives & Required Readings Perspectives on Chronicity
1. Differentiate between health, disease and illness.
Health—a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Disease—defined as problem that is identified by practitioner (biomedical model)
Illness—experience of symptoms & suffering (subjective experience of patient)
2. Compare and contrast the characteristics of chronic and acute illness.
Acute Chronic
Limited duration
Abrupt onset
Usually single cause
Diagnosis and prognosis commonly
Self limited or specific therapy
Technological intervention usually
effective (lab testing, imaging,
medication, surgery)
Cure likely with return to normal
Minimal uncertainly
Professionals knowledgeable, client
Unfolds over time, undulating
Multivariate causation, changing
over time
Diagnosis may be uncertain;
prognosis obscure
Gradual onset
Treatments achieve no definitive
results, and therapies have
associated adversities
Technological intervention may or
may not be helpful
No cure, management over time
Uncertainty pervasive
Professional and client partially and
reciprocally knowledgeable
3. Discuss the incidence of chronic illness across the lifespan, nationally and globally.
Heart disease, lung diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for 63% of the 57
million deaths worldwide in 2008 (WHO, 2011 as cited in Lewis et al., 2014, p
About 2/3 of deaths in Canada each year are due to chronic diseases
3/5 Canadians 20yrs and up have a chronic disease & 4/5 are at risk of developing
4. Discuss factors that influence the incidence of chronic illness.
Tobacco use
Insufficient physical activity
Harmful use of alcohol
Unhealthy diet
Raised blood pressure
Overweight and obesity
Raised cholesterol
Cancer-associated infections
Lower social position (health determinants)
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