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Lecture 8

Psychology Lecture 8 Oct 30, 2013.docx

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PSYCH 1100
Mike Moland

PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland Psychology October 30, 2013 7:00 PM What is consciousness? Includes everything of which we are aware at any given time, thoughts, feelings, mental processes, and events outside ourselves Awareness of ourselves/environment (engage in a task: before you make the task an EEG will make a movement) Biological rhythms Annual cycles: migrate, hibernate, mood: depressed in spring (light cycles) Twenty four hour cycles: varying alertness, body temperature, growth hormone secretion, all mammals/birds sleep (circadian rhythm: biological clock) Light-retina-suprachiamatic nucleus-causes: Pineal gland ↑↓ = sleep hormone melatonin Sleep occurs in 90 minute cycles, you need 7-10 hours, newborns need 16 hours Stages Pass through all stages several times a night Stage 1  Unaware  5-10 minutes (hypnagogic imagery: dream-like images)  Theta waves  Sensation of falling (hypnic myoclonia)  Sudden jerks of limbs (myoclonic jerks) Stage 2  Bursts of electrical activity (sleep spindles)  K-complex appears  Heart rate and body temperature lower  Muscles relax  65% of sleep in stage 2 Stage 3&4  Slow sleep wave  Slow delta waves  Difficult to awaken  Non-REM sleep  43% reports dream Stage 5  REM sleep  20-25% of our sleep  Vivid dreaming - more bizarre  82% dream reports PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland  EEG like we're awake (paradox)  Boners/lubrications REM Sleep/Dreaming  When you miss REM - you make up for it next time (REM rebound)  Alcohol inhibits REM sleep  Function of eye movements are unknown  People with REM Behaviour Disorder act out their dreams - brain stems structures for paralysis aren't working right  Blind after 7 years old = dream with visual imagery  Lucid dreaming = realize you are dreaming while asleep (hostile characters become less frightening)  REM dreams are emotional, illogical, plot shifts Non-REM dreams are short, through-like, repetitive  Meeting hostile characters in your dreams, they become less frightening Sleep Anomalies  Somnambolism (sleepwalking)/sexsomnia: stage 4  Somniloquy (sleeptalking): any sleep stage/among children  Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness, uncontrollable REM sleep  Sleep apnea: during sleep, breathing stops, awaken briefly to breathe (2-20% population)  Insomnia: difficulty falling/staying asleep, waking too early, light sleep, restless, poor quality (9- 15% population), depression and stress, caffeine/napping - should sleep in cold room, awake at regular times, avoid caffeine and napping  Night terrors: stage 3 or 4, within 2-3 hours of sleeping  Nightmares: toward morning, REM sleep, stress-related Why do we dream?  Dreams involve the cortical interpretation of random brainstem neural activity  REM increase acetylcholine, shuts down serotonin and norepinephine, pons send incomplete signals to the thalamus, forebrain interprets them, amygdala is active  Complete loss of dreaming: people with damage to the deep frontal white cortical matter and the parietal lobes  Dreams are more consistent over time Dream F
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